We report the effect of DKK1 treatment during culture on the length and transcriptome of embryos on day 15 of development, supporting the notion that changes early in development affect later stages of development. Overall design: Bovine embryos were produced in vitro and exposed to either 0 or 100 ng/ml DKK1 from day 5 to 7 of culture. Embryos were transferred on day 7 and recovered on day 15 for evaluation of length and transciptome
Dickkopf-related protein 1 is a progestomedin acting on the bovine embryo during the morula-to-blastocyst transition to program trophoblast elongation.
Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Background & Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) attenuates chemical and colitis-induced colon carcinogenesis in animal models. We investigated its mechanism of action on normal intestinal cells, in which carcinogenesis- or inflammation-related alterations do not interfere with the result. Methods: Alterations of gene expression were identified in Affymetrix arrays in isolated colon epithelium of mice fed with a diet containing 0.4% UDCA and were confirmed in the normal rat intestinal cell line IEC-6 by RT-PCR. The effect of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs-1) expression and of ERK phosphorylation on proliferation was investigated in vitro by flow cytometry, western blotting, siRNA-mediated gene suppression or by pharmacological inhibition of the kinase activity. The ERK1-effect on Irs-1 transcription was tested in a reporter system. Results: UDCA-treatment in vivo suppressed potential pro-proliferatory genes including Irs-1 and reduced cell proliferation by more than 30%. In vitro it neutralised the proliferatory signals of IGF-1 and EGF and slowed down the cell cycle. Irs-1 transcription was suppressed due to high ERK1 activation. Both Irs-1 suppression and the persistent high ERK activation inhibited proliferation. Conversely, the decrease of phosphorylation of ERK1 (but not ERK2) or of its expression partially abrogated the inhibitory effects of UDCA. Conclusions: UDCA inhibits proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells by acting upon IGF-1 and EGF pathways and targeting ERK1 and, consequently, Irs-1. The inhibition of these pathways adds a new dimension to the physiological and therapeutic action of UDCA and, since both pathways are activated in inflammation and cancer, suggests new applications of UDCA in chemoprevention and chemotherapy.
UDCA slows down intestinal cell proliferation by inducing high and sustained ERK phosphorylation.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
Oxaliplatin (oxPt) resistance in colorectal cancers (CRC) is a major medical problem, and predictive markers are urgently needed. Recently, miR-625-3p was reported as a promising predictive marker. Here, we have used in vitro models to show that miR-625-3p functionally induces oxPt resistance in CRC cells, and have identified signalling networks affected by miR-625-3p. The p38 MAPK activator MAP2K6 was shown to be a direct target of miR-625-3p, and, accordingly, was downregulated in patients not responding to oxPt therapy. miR-625-3p resistance could be reversed in CRC cells by anti-miR-625-3p treatment and by ectopic expression of a miR-625-3p insensitive MAP2K6 variant. In addition, by reducing p38 MAPK signalling using either siRNA technology, chemical inhibitors to p38 or by ectopic expression of dominant negative MAP2K6 protein we induced resistance to oxPt. Transcriptome, proteome and phosphoproteome profiles revealed inactivation of MAP2K6-p38 signalling as one likely mechanism a possible driving force behind of oxPt resistance. Our study shows that miR-625-3p induces oxPt resistance by abrogating MAP2K6-p38 regulated apoptosis and cell cycle control networks, and corroborates the predictive power of miR-625-3p
miR-625-3p regulates oxaliplatin resistance by targeting MAP2K6-p38 signalling in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.
The response to the presence of the ncpBVDV-infected PI or TI fetus is expected to provide information on the impact of the PI fetus on the immune response of the dam
Persistent fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus differentially affects maternal blood cell signal transduction pathways.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Boar taint (BT) is an offensive odour or taste observed in pork from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs. Surgical castration is effective in avoiding BT, but animal welfare issues have created an incentive for alternatives such as genomic selection. In order to find candidate biomarkers, gene expression profiles were analysed from tissues of non-castrated pigs grouped by their genetic merit of BT. Differential expression analysis revealed substantial changes with log-transformed fold changes of liver and testis from -3.39 to 2.96 and -7.51 to 3.53, respectively. Co-expression network analysis revealed one module with a correlation of -0.27 in liver and three modules with correlations of 0.31, -0.44 and -0.49 in testis. Differential expression and co-expression analysis revealed candidate biomarkers with varying biological functions: phase I (COQ3, COX6C, CYP2J2, CYP2B6, ACOX2) and phase II metabolism (GSTO1, GSR, FMO3) of skatole and androstenone in liver to steroidgenesis (HSD17B7, HSD17B8, CYP27A1), regulation of steroidgenesis (STARD10, CYB5R3) and GnRH signalling (MAPK3, MAP2K2, MAP3K2) in testis. Overrepresented pathways included “Ribosome”, “Protein export” and “Oxidative phosphorylation” in liver and “Steroid hormone biosynthesis” and “Gap junction” in testis. Future work should evaluate the biomarkers in large populations to ensure their usefulness in genomic selection programs. Overall design: Total RNA was extracted from liver and testis of 48 Danish Landrace pigs with low- medium and high genetic merit of boar taint and sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 2500.
Systems genomics study reveals expression quantitative trait loci, regulator genes and pathways associated with boar taint in pigs.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCMs) were stretched biaxially (112%/24h) or stimulated with phenylephrine (PE, 50 uM), both resulting in a similar degree of hypertrophy. Unstretched NRVCMs served as negative control. Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed 164 genes more than 2.0-fold up- and 21 genes less than 0.5-fold downregulated (p<0.01). Differential expression was confirmed by real-time PCR. Several genes of the fetal gene program, i.e. BNP (4.2-fold, all p<0.05) were induced by stretch as well as PE. We also verified the upregulation of known stretch-responsive genes, including HSP70 (20.9x) and c-myc (3.0x). Moreover, we identified genes exclusively induced by stretch, such as the cardioprotective and antihypertrophic cytokine GDF15 (24.8x) and the antihypertrophic factor heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1, 10.8x; both confirmed on protein level). Of note, neither PE nor endothelin-1 were able to upregulate GDF15 and Hmox1, while angiotensin II significantly induced both genes. Conversely, addition of the AT1 receptor blocker irbesartan markedly blunted stretch-mediated GDF15 and Hmox1 induction, suggesting that the angiotensin II receptor mediates stretch-dependent signals.
Gene expression pattern in biomechanically stretched cardiomyocytes: evidence for a stretch-specific gene program.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Background & Aims: Genome-wide gene expression (GWGE) profiles of mucosal colonic biopsies have suggested the existence of a continuous inflammatory state in quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to use DNA microarray-based GWGE profiling of mucosal colonic biopsies and isolated colonocytes from UC patients and controls in order to identify the cell types responsible for the continuous inflammatory state. Methods: Adjacent mucosal colonic biopsies were obtained endoscopically from the descending colon in patients with active UC (n=8), quiescent UC (n=9), and with irritable bowel syndrome (controls, n=10). After isolation of colonocytes and subsequent extraction of total RNA, GWGE data were acquired using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Data analysis was carried out by principal component analysis and projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis using the SIMCA-P11 software (Umetrics, Ume, Sweden). Results: A clear separation between active UC, quiescent UC and control biopsies were found, whereas the model for the colonocytes was unable to distinguish between quiescent UC and controls. The differentiation between quiescent UC and control biopsies was governed by unique profiles containing gene expressions with significant fold changes. These primarily belonged to the family of homeostatic chemokines revealing a plausible explanation to the abnormal regulated innate immune response seen in patients with UC. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the presence of a continuous inflammatory state in quiescent UC, which seems to reflect an altered gene expression profile of lamina propria cells.
Genome-wide gene expression analysis of mucosal colonic biopsies and isolated colonocytes suggests a continuous inflammatory state in the lamina propria of patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
We used microarrays to globally profile the gene expression changes observed after 24h when transfecting antisense oligonucleotides in HuH77 cells
Managing the sequence-specificity of antisense oligonucleotides in drug discovery.
Pentoxifylline attenuated hypertrophic scars by influencing the cell cycles Overall design: mRNA profiles of control hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and pentoxifylline treated cells were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Ion Proton.
The Akt/FoxO/p27<sup>Kip1</sup> axis contributes to the anti-proliferation of pentoxifylline in hypertrophic scars.
Specimen part, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the major cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer, the most common form of cancer in the United States. UV irradiation has a variety of effects on the skin associated with carcinogenesis, including DNA damage and effects on signal transduction. The alterations in signaling caused by UV regulate inflammation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. UV also activates the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase and proto-oncogene Erbb2 (HER2/neu). In this study, we demonstrate that the UV-induced activation of Erbb2 regulates the response of the skin to UV. Inhibition or knockdown of Erbb2 before UV irradiation suppressed cell proliferation, cell survival, and inflammation after UV. In addition, Erbb2 was necessary for the UV-induced expression of numerous proinflammatory genes that are regulated by the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB and Comp1, including interleukin-1beta, prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (Cyclooxygenase-2), and multiple chemokines. These results reveal the influence of Erbb2 on the UV response and suggest a role for Erbb2 in UV-induced pathologies such as skin cancer.
Erbb2 regulates inflammation and proliferation in the skin after ultraviolet irradiation.
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