Comparison of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia patients expressing high or low levels of ZAP70 mRNA: prognostic factors and interaction with the microenvironment.
Gene expression profiling reveals differences in microenvironment interaction between patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia expressing high versus low ZAP70 mRNA.
Sex, AgeView Samples
We report the effect of DKK1 treatment during culture on the length and transcriptome of embryos on day 15 of development, supporting the notion that changes early in development affect later stages of development. Overall design: Bovine embryos were produced in vitro and exposed to either 0 or 100 ng/ml DKK1 from day 5 to 7 of culture. Embryos were transferred on day 7 and recovered on day 15 for evaluation of length and transciptome
Dickkopf-related protein 1 is a progestomedin acting on the bovine embryo during the morula-to-blastocyst transition to program trophoblast elongation.
Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Background & Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) attenuates chemical and colitis-induced colon carcinogenesis in animal models. We investigated its mechanism of action on normal intestinal cells, in which carcinogenesis- or inflammation-related alterations do not interfere with the result. Methods: Alterations of gene expression were identified in Affymetrix arrays in isolated colon epithelium of mice fed with a diet containing 0.4% UDCA and were confirmed in the normal rat intestinal cell line IEC-6 by RT-PCR. The effect of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs-1) expression and of ERK phosphorylation on proliferation was investigated in vitro by flow cytometry, western blotting, siRNA-mediated gene suppression or by pharmacological inhibition of the kinase activity. The ERK1-effect on Irs-1 transcription was tested in a reporter system. Results: UDCA-treatment in vivo suppressed potential pro-proliferatory genes including Irs-1 and reduced cell proliferation by more than 30%. In vitro it neutralised the proliferatory signals of IGF-1 and EGF and slowed down the cell cycle. Irs-1 transcription was suppressed due to high ERK1 activation. Both Irs-1 suppression and the persistent high ERK activation inhibited proliferation. Conversely, the decrease of phosphorylation of ERK1 (but not ERK2) or of its expression partially abrogated the inhibitory effects of UDCA. Conclusions: UDCA inhibits proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells by acting upon IGF-1 and EGF pathways and targeting ERK1 and, consequently, Irs-1. The inhibition of these pathways adds a new dimension to the physiological and therapeutic action of UDCA and, since both pathways are activated in inflammation and cancer, suggests new applications of UDCA in chemoprevention and chemotherapy.
UDCA slows down intestinal cell proliferation by inducing high and sustained ERK phosphorylation.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
Discriminating pathogenic bacteria from energy-harvesting commensals is key to host immunity. Using mutants defective in the enzymes of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) cycling, we examined the role of this nutrient-sensing pathway in the Caenorhabidits elegans innate immune response. Using whole genome transcriptional profiling, O-GlcNAc cycling mutants exhibited deregulation of unique stress- and immune-responsive genes as well as genes shared with the p38 MAPK/PMK-1 pathway. Moreover, genetic analysis showed that deletion of O-GlcNAc transferase (ogt-1) yielded animals hypersensitive to the human pathogen S. aureus but not to P. aeruginosa. Genetic interaction studies further revealed that nutrient-responsive OGT-1 acts through the conserved -catenin (BAR-1) pathway and in concert with p38 MAPK/PMK-1 to modulate the immune response to S. aureus. The participation of the nutrient sensor O-GlcNAc transferase in an immunity module conserved from C. elegans to humans reveals an unexplored nexus between nutrient availability and a pathogen-specific immune response.
Conserved nutrient sensor O-GlcNAc transferase is integral to C. elegans pathogen-specific immunity.
In leukemias and other malignancies of the bone marrow, little is known about the fate of fibroblasts and resident macrophages after normal hematopoietic cells are replaced by neoplastic cells. In the present investigation we used two-stage long-term bone marrow cultures to detect functional stromal cell abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and multiple myeloma. While fibroblasts from multiple myeloma and macrophages from multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndromes were functionally indistinguishable from the respective cell types from normal bone marrow, fibroblasts from patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes possessed a significantly lower ability to support hematopoiesis originating from co-cultured normal CD34-positive cells than fibroblasts from healthy marrow. Conversely, macrophages from acute myeloid leukemia marrow significantly enhanced the production of blood cells compared with control macrophages. Aberrant function in fibroblasts and macrophages was associated with consistent changes in the expression of genes whose products are involved in hematopoietic stem cell control, such as cytokines and regulators of the Wnt and Notch signalling pathways.
Functional abnormalities and changes in gene expression in fibroblasts and macrophages from the bone marrow of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Sex, Disease, Disease stage, SubjectView Samples
Nutrient-responsive oogenesis in Drosophila is a complex and dynamic process regulated, in part, by members of the Pc and Trx complexes. The recent finding that O-GlcNAc Transferase (ogt/sxc) is essential for Pc repression raises the question of whether this nutrient-sensing pathway plays a role in regulating oogenesis. OGT transfers O-GlcNAc to key transcriptional regulators in response to graded levels of the nutrient-derived precursor UDP-GlcNAc; O-GlcNAcase (OGA) catalyzes the removal of O-GlcNAc. Here we produced a null allele of oga (oga1) in Drosophila to examine its in vivo function. We found that oga mutant flies were viable, but that females displayed greatly reduced fecundity. The ovaries from the female OGA knockout exhibited a starvation-like phenotype, even under well-fed conditions. Germline stem cell division was slowed in the germarium of OGA knockout fly ovarioles. Ovaries from the oga1 mutants displayed significantly decreased H3K4 monomethylation in germline stem cells. The Trithorax family members Trx and Ash1 and Compass member Set1 histone methyltransferases are O-GlcNAc modified in oga1 mutant ovaries. Our results suggest that the loss of OGA disrupts oogenesis at least in part by interfering with H3K4 monomethylation in germ cells in the ovary. The findings also suggest that O-GlcNAc cycling is an essential part of the nutrient-responsive epigenetic machinery regulating Drosophila oogenesis in response to a changing nutrient supply.
Drosophila O-GlcNAcase Deletion Globally Perturbs Chromatin O-GlcNAcylation.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Oxaliplatin (oxPt) resistance in colorectal cancers (CRC) is a major medical problem, and predictive markers are urgently needed. Recently, miR-625-3p was reported as a promising predictive marker. Here, we have used in vitro models to show that miR-625-3p functionally induces oxPt resistance in CRC cells, and have identified signalling networks affected by miR-625-3p. The p38 MAPK activator MAP2K6 was shown to be a direct target of miR-625-3p, and, accordingly, was downregulated in patients not responding to oxPt therapy. miR-625-3p resistance could be reversed in CRC cells by anti-miR-625-3p treatment and by ectopic expression of a miR-625-3p insensitive MAP2K6 variant. In addition, by reducing p38 MAPK signalling using either siRNA technology, chemical inhibitors to p38 or by ectopic expression of dominant negative MAP2K6 protein we induced resistance to oxPt. Transcriptome, proteome and phosphoproteome profiles revealed inactivation of MAP2K6-p38 signalling as one likely mechanism a possible driving force behind of oxPt resistance. Our study shows that miR-625-3p induces oxPt resistance by abrogating MAP2K6-p38 regulated apoptosis and cell cycle control networks, and corroborates the predictive power of miR-625-3p
miR-625-3p regulates oxaliplatin resistance by targeting MAP2K6-p38 signalling in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.
Single O-GlcNAc modification orchestrate by O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA alias MGEA5) enzymes, affects signal transduction and gene expression by chromatin modulation. We developed Oga deleted MEF (mouse embryonic fibroblast) cells to investigate effects of O-GlcNAc modification in mice. RNA isolated from Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast cells generated from Oga Knock out (KO) Heterozygous (Het) and wild type (WT) cells and subjected to microarray analysis.
Conditional knock-out reveals a requirement for O-linked N-Acetylglucosaminase (O-GlcNAcase) in metabolic homeostasis.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
THO2 and HPR1 proteins were co-depleted from Drosophila S2 cells and their role in mRNA export analysed by comparing total RNA and cytoplasmic RNA
The superhelical TPR-repeat domain of O-linked GlcNAc transferase exhibits structural similarities to importin alpha.
Cell lineView Samples
Pentoxifylline attenuated hypertrophic scars by influencing the cell cycles Overall design: mRNA profiles of control hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and pentoxifylline treated cells were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Ion Proton.
The Akt/FoxO/p27<sup>Kip1</sup> axis contributes to the anti-proliferation of pentoxifylline in hypertrophic scars.
Specimen part, Treatment, SubjectView Samples