C2C12 myoblasts were infected with a retrovirus expressing Pax7d or with an empty virus (puro) as a control. All of the samples originated from the same common pool of parental C2C12. This pool was split into six streams. A single prep of Pax7d-puro virus was split into three volumes and used to infect three of the streams. A single prep of puro-alone virus was similarly split in three and used to infect the remaining three streams. From the point of the infection forward each stream was maintained distinct from the others. Cells were infected and grown simultaneously under identical conditions.
Pax7 activates myogenic genes by recruitment of a histone methyltransferase complex.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Epidemiological studies indicate that progestin-containing contraceptives may increase susceptibility to HIV and other infections; however, underlying mechanisms involving the upper female reproductive tract are undefined. To determine the effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on gene expression and physiology of the human endometrial and cervical transformation zone (TZ), microarray analyses were performed on whole tissue biopsies. In endometrium, activated pathways included leukocyte chemotaxis, attachment, and inflammation in DMPA (z>2.5) and LNG-IUS (z>3.5) users, and regulation of pattern recognition receptors and other immune mediators. In cervical TZ, progestin treatment altered expression of tissue remodeling and viability genes, but not those of immune functions. Together, these results indicate that progestins influence expression of immune-related genes in endometrium that would be expected to result in the local recruitment of HIV target cells, and thus may increase HIV susceptibility. It is important to consider the upper reproductive tract in the assessment of effects of contraceptives that may influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as HIV.
Progestin-Containing Contraceptives Alter Expression of Host Defense-Related Genes of the Endometrium and Cervix.
Specimen partView Samples
Intravaginal HIV microbicides could provide women with a self-controlled means for HIV prevention, but results from clinical trials have been largely disappointing. We postulated that unrecognized effects of intravaginal gels on the upper female reproductive tract (FRT) might contribute to the lower-than-expected efficacy of HIV microbicides. In this observational crossover study, 28 healthy female volunteers used no product (control cycle) or used a nightly application of intravaginal nonoxynol-9 gel [N9] as a 'failed' microbicide or the universal placebo gel [UPG] as a 'safe' gel, from the end of menses to the mid-luteal phase (intervention cycles). They then underwent sample collection for measurements of T-cell phenotypes, transcriptional profiling, and protein levels from 3 anatomic sites above the vagina: the cervical transformation zone, the endocervix and the endometrium. We used hierarchical statistical models to estimate mean (95% CI) intervention:control fold-changes in relevant phenotype levels. Exposure to N9 and UPG generated a common 'harm signature' that included transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory genes CCL20 and IL8 in the cervix, decreased protein concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor and increased percentages of terminally differentiated CD4+ effector T-cells in the endocervix, and transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory mediators KIR3DS1, glycodelin-A, and osteopontin in the endometrium. These results underscore the need to consider the effects of microbicide agents and gel excipients on the upper FRT in studies of vaginal microbicides. Given the pro-inflammatory effects of UPG on the upper FRT, it may not be a suitable placebo for microbicide trials.
Unexpected Inflammatory Effects of Intravaginal Gels (Universal Placebo Gel and Nonoxynol-9) on the Upper Female Reproductive Tract: A Randomized Crossover Study.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
We tamoxifen treated 8-12 week old mice that had floxed alleles of the following: 1) both Apc alleles (giving rise to Apc truncation/inactivation); 2) both Cdx2 alleles (giving rise to Cdx2 inactivation; 3) one Braf allele, that upon Cre-mediated recombination gives a Braf V600E mutant allele (details below), and 4) the combination of both the Cdx2 alleles and the BrafV600E allele. All four of those groups also had a CDX2P-CreERT2 transgene that expresses Cre recombinase fused to a tamoxifen-regulated fragment of the estrogen receptor ligand binding domain. CreERT2 expression occurs only in tissues where the Cdx2 gene is expressed, which is almost exclusively in adult mouse cecum and colon epithelium. A fifth group of mice had the floxed Cdx2 alleles, but no CDX2P-CreERT2 gene. Treating the mice having CDX2P-CreERT2 with tamoxifen permits the Cre recombinase to enter the cell nucleus and recombine the Apc, Braf, and/or Cdx2 alleles containing loxP sequence elements. Mice were treated with intraperitoneal injection of tamoxifen dissolved in corn oil. Three mice per group were used. The control mice did not develop tumors or any morphological or histological changes in their epithelium, but their colons were used to create the 3 control samples. To obtain the BrafV600E allele we used a genetically engineered mouse line previously described by Dankort et al. (Genes Dev 2007, 21:379-84) that can express the BrafV600E mutant protein following Cre-mediated recombination. The Braf(CA) (Braf-Cre-activated) allele mice carry a gene-targeted allele of Braf, where Braf sequences from exons 15-18 are present in the normal mouse Braf intron 14, followed by a mutated exon 15 (carrying the V600E mutation). The exon 15-18 sequence element is flanked by loxP sites. In the absence of Cre-mediated recombination, the Braf(CA) allele expresses a wild type Braf protein. Following Cre-mediated recombination, the Braf exon 15-18 element is removed, and the Braf(CA) allele then encodes the Braf V600E protein (from the introduced mutated exon 15). RNA was purified from tumor or normal tissue, and targets for Affymetrix arrays were synthesized from the mRNAs. We used Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.1 ST arrays, which hold 41345 probe-sets, but we largely analyzed just those 25216 probe-sets that were mapped to Entrez gene IDs. Raw data was processed with the Robust Multi-array Average algorithm (RMA). Data is log2-transformed transcript abundance estimates. We fit a one-way ANOVA model to the five groups of samples. We supply a supplementary excel workbook that holds the same data as the data matrix file, but also holds the probe-set annotation at the time we analyzed the data, and some simple statistical calculations, which selects subsets of the probe-sets as differentially expressed between pairs of groups, as well as significant Cdx2-/- by Braf V600E interactions. It also gives the homologous human gene IDs we used for enrichment testing, which were 1-to-1 best homologs according to build 68 of NCBI's Homologene. A second supplementary sheet shows the data we enrichment tested after collapsing to distinct human homologs, joins of the results of tests with GSE4045 data and of tests with TCGA data to the mouse genes, and the intersections of selected genes in those data set with our gene selections in mouse. Consumers should consider obtaining more up-to-date probe-set annotation for the array platform.
BRAF<sup>V600E</sup> cooperates with CDX2 inactivation to promote serrated colorectal tumorigenesis.
Sex, TreatmentView Samples
To investigate the role of RPRD1B in regulating gene expression in NIH3T3 cells. Overall design: Examination of mRNA expression levels in cells with control or RPRD1B knockdown NIH3T3 cells
Crosstalk between RNA Pol II C-Terminal Domain Acetylation and Phosphorylation via RPRD Proteins.
Specimen part, Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (mtBRCA1 and mtBRCA2) dramatically increase risk for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), the most commonly diagnosed histotype. Other risk factors for this cancer, which originates primarily in the distal fallopian tube epithelium (FTE), implicate ovulation. To test whether mtBRCA1 or mtBRCA2 FTE cells respond differently to peri-ovulatory follicular fluid (FF) exposure than control patient FTE, gene expression profiles from primary FTE cultures were compared at baseline, 24h after FF exposure, and 24h after FF replacement with culture medium. Hierarchical clustering revealed both FF exposure and BRCA mutation status affect gene expression, with BRCA1 mutation having the greatest impact. Analysis revealed increased NFB and EGFR signaling at baseline, with increased interferon signaling after recovery from FF exposure in mtBRCA1 samples. Inhibition of EGFR signaling and ISGylation by increased BRCA1 expression was verified in an immortalized FTE cell line, OE-E6/E7, stably transfected with BRCA1. Suppression of ISG15 and ISGylated protein levels by BRCA1 expression was found to be mediated by decreased NFB signaling and was transiently suppressed by FF exposure. This study demonstrates increased NFB signaling associated with decreased BRCA1 expression resulting in increased ISG15 and ISGylation following FF exposure, which could represent potential targets for chemoprevention.
BRCA1 Mutation Status and Follicular Fluid Exposure Alters NFκB Signaling and ISGylation in Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells.
Specimen part, TimeView Samples
Immune cell infiltration in myositis were by examining microarray expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls.
Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles.
Sex, Specimen part, Disease, Disease stageView Samples
CTSK-mGFP positive cells from Day 6 old mouse femurs were sorted as single cells into 384 well plates pre-loaded with unique barcoded RT-primers. After sorting, cells were snap frozen on dry ice before being submitted to the New York Genome Center (NYGC) for cDNA synthesis and library preparation. The FACS profile for all the sored cells were collected to co-relate with gene expression. Overall design: Mouse femur was obtained from mice within the same litter. Femur samples was subjected to collagenase digestion, and single cell suspension was obtained. The samples were stained for FACS antibodies and single cell sorting was performed into two individual 384 well plates. The experiment has two replicates from two independant animals. The samples were always kept discrete.
Discovery of a periosteal stem cell mediating intramembranous bone formation.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
C2H2 zinc finger proteins represent the largest and most enigmatic class of human transcription factors. Their C2H2 arrays are highly variable, indicating that most will have unique DNA binding motifs. However, most of the binding motifs have not been directly determined. We have determined the binding sites and motifs of 119 C2H2 zinc finger proteins and the expression pattern of 80 cell lines overexpressing C2H2 zinc finger proteins in order to study the role of C2H2 zinc finger proteins in gene regulation. Overall design: We expressed GFP-tagged C2H2-ZF proteins in stable transgenic HEK293 cells. Total RNA was isolated using Trizol and sequencing libraries were constructed using TruSeq Stranded Total RNA Library Prep Kit with Ribo-Zero Gold or TruSeq RNA Library Preparation Kit v2.
Multiparameter functional diversity of human C2H2 zinc finger proteins.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Compatibility between high-density oligonucleotide arrays is significantly affected by probe-level sequence information. With a careful filtering of the probes based on their sequence overlaps, data from different generations of microarrays can be combined more effectively. The dataset of 14 human muscle biopsy samples from patients with inflammatory myopathies that were hybridized on both HG-U95Av2 and HG-U133A human arrays for this purpose. Signal values from GCOS 1.2 with Detection call and p-value are provided here, and CEL files are also available for download.
Combining gene expression data from different generations of oligonucleotide arrays.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples