While identification of genes mutated in high penetrance tumor predisposition syndromes has been a success story, much less progress has been made in characterizing the genetic basis of low penetrance tumor susceptibility. Combining recently introduced chip-based technologies with traditional genealogy work we have identified inactivating germline mutations in patients with pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP).
Pituitary adenoma predisposition caused by germline mutations in the AIP gene.
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We study the effect of nitrogen limitation on the growth and development of poplar roots. We used microarrays to detail the global program of gene expression underlying morphological and developmental changes driven by low nitrogen in the growth media. We report the effect of nitrogen limitation on the growth and development of poplar roots. Low nitrogen concentration led to increased root elongation followed by lateral root proliferation and finally increased root biomass. These morphological responses correlated with high and specific activation of genes encoding regulators of cell cycle and enzymes involved in cell wall biogenesis, growth and remodeling. Comparative analysis of poplar and Arabidopsis root transcriptomes under nitrogen deficiency indicated many similarities and diversification in the response in the two species. A reconstruction of genetic regulatory network (GRN) analysis revealed a sub-network centered on a PtaNAC1-like transcription factor. Consistent with the GRN predictions, root-specific upregulation of PtaNAC1 in transgenic poplar plants increased root biomass and led to significant changes in the expression of the connected genes specifically under low nitrogen. PtaNAC1 and its regulatory miR164 showed inverse expression profiles during response to LN, suggesting of a micro RNA mediated attenuation of PtaNAC1 transcript abundance in response to nitrogen deprivation.
Nitrogen deprivation promotes Populus root growth through global transcriptome reprogramming and activation of hierarchical genetic networks.
Specimen part, Treatment, TimeView Samples
Notch receptors direct the differentiation of T helper (Th) cell subsets, but their influence on regulatory T (TR) cell responses is obscure. Interruption of Notch signaling in TR cells resulted in a super-regulatory phenotype, with suppression of TR cell Th1 programming and apoptosis as well as Th1 cell responses in systemic inflammation. In contrast, gain of function Notch1 signaling in TR cells resulted in lymphoproliferation, dysregulated Th1 responses and autoimmunity. To determine mechanisms by which Notch signaling may alter TR cell function, we compared the transcriptional profiles of splenic TR cells of Foxp3EGFPCre mice with those of Foxp3EGFPCreR26N1c/N1c (gain of function Notch signaling), Foxp3EGFPCreRBPJ/ (loss of function canonical Notch signaling), and Foxp3EGFPCreR26N1c/N1cRBPJ/ mice (gain of function/canonical loss of function Notch signaling).
Control of peripheral tolerance by regulatory T cell-intrinsic Notch signaling.
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Fetal spleens were collected at days 82 and 97 of gestation following maternal infection with BVDV on day 75 of gestation.
Attenuated lymphocyte activation leads to the development of immunotolerance in bovine fetuses persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus†.
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Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH) is characterized by persistent high levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Several contributory factors, both genetic and environmental, have been identified, but others remain elusive. Ten of twenty-seven members from a Maltese family presented with HPFH. A genome-wide SNP scan followed by linkage analysis revealed a candidate region on chromosome 19p13.12-13. Sequencing identified a nonsense mutation in the KLF1 gene, p.K288X, ablating the DNA binding domain of this key erythroid transcriptional regulator. Only HPFH family members were heterozygote carriers of this mutation. Expression profiling on primary erythroid progenitors revealed down-regulation of KLF1 target genes in HPFH samples. Functional assays demonstrated that, in addition to its established role in adult globin expression, KLF1 is a critical activator of the BCL11A gene, encoding a suppressor of HbF expression. These observations provide a rationale for the effects of KLF1 haploinsufficiency on HbF levels. To identify differentially expressed genes, RNA was isolated from erythroid progenitors (HEPs) cultured from peripheral blood of four HPFH (KLF1 p.K288X/wt) and four non-HPFH family members (wt/wt) and used for genome-wide expression analysis.
Haploinsufficiency for the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 causes hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin.
Specimen partView Samples
Fatty acids comprise the primary energy source for the heart and are mainly taken up via hydrolysis of circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. While most of the fatty acids entering the cardiomyocyte are oxidized, a small portion is involved in altering gene transcription to modulate cardiometabolic functions. So far, no in vivo model has been developed enabling study of the transcriptional effects of specific fatty acids in the intact heart. In the present study, mice were given a single oral dose of synthetic triglycerides composed of one single fatty acid. Hearts were collected 6h thereafter and used for whole genome gene expression profiling. Experiments were conducted in wild-type and PPAR/ mice to allow exploration of the specific contribution of PPAR. It was found that: 1) linolenic acid (C18:3) had the most pronounced effect on cardiac gene expression. 2) The largest similarity in gene regulation was observed between linoleic acid (C18:2) and C18:3. Large similarity was also observed between the synthetic PPAR agonist Wy14643 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6). 3) Many genes were regulated by one particular treatment only. Genes regulated by one particular treatment showed large functional divergence. 4) The majority of genes responding to fatty acid treatment were regulated in a PPAR-dependent manner, emphasizing the importance of PPAR in mediating transcriptional regulation by fatty acids in the heart. 5) Several genes were robustly regulated by all or many of the fatty acids studied, mostly representing well-described targets of PPARs (e.g. Acot1, Angptl4, Ucp3). 6) Deletion and activation of PPAR had a major effect on expression of numerous genes involved in metabolism and immunity. Our analysis demonstrates the marked impact of dietary fatty acids on gene regulation in the heart via PPAR.
Detailed transcriptomics analysis of the effect of dietary fatty acids on gene expression in the heart.
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Environmental enrichment (EE) replicates mind-body therapy by providing complex housing to laboratory animals to improve their activity levels, behavior and social interactions. Using a Tcf4Het/+ ApcMin/+-mediated model of colon tumorigenesis, we found that EE vastly improved the survival of tumor-bearing animals, with differential effect on tumor load in male compared to female animals. Analysis of Tcf4Het/+ ApcMin/+ males showed drastically reduced expression of circulating inflammatory cytokines and induced nuclear hormone receptor signaling, both of which are common in the wound repair process. Interestingly, EE provoked tumor wound repair resolution through revascularization, plasma cell recruitment and IgA secretion, replacement of glandular tumor structures with pericytes in a process reminiscent of scarring, and normalization of microbiota. These EE-dependent changes likely underlie the profound improvement in survival of colon-tumor-bearing Tcf4Het/+ ApcMin/+ males. Our studies highlight the exciting promise of EE in the design of future therapeutic strategies for colon cancer patients. Overall design: Four samples from EE and NE (non-enriched controls) were analyzed
Environmental Enrichment Induces Pericyte and IgA-Dependent Wound Repair and Lifespan Extension in a Colon Tumor Model.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Integrative regulatory mapping indicates that the RNA-binding protein HuR (ELAVL1) couples pre-mRNA processing and mRNA stability
Integrative regulatory mapping indicates that the RNA-binding protein HuR couples pre-mRNA processing and mRNA stability.
Specimen partView Samples