RNA sequencing in NIH-3T3 cells Overall design: Transcriptome analysis for three biological replicates of pLX307, SOS1 WT, SOS1 N233Y, and KRAS G12V cells
Identification and Characterization of Oncogenic <i>SOS1</i> Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Early diagnosis of transthyretin (TTR) amyloid diseases remains challenging because of variable disease penetrance. Currently, patients must have an amyloid positive tissue biopsy to be eligible for disease modifying therapies. Early diagnosis is often difficult because the patient exhibits apparent symptoms of polyneuropathy or cardiomyopathy, but has a negative amyloid biopsy. Thus, there is a pressing need for more objective, quantitative diagnostics and biomarkers of TTR-aggregation-associated polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy. This is especially true in the context of clinical trials demonstrating significant disease modifying effects, e.g. when the TTR tetramer stabilizer tafamidis was administered to familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) patients early in the disease course. When asked if the findings of the tafamidis registration trial were sufficiently robust to provide substantial evidence of efficacy for a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict a clinical benefit the advisory committee said yes, but the FDA rejected the tetramer stabilization surrogate biomarker required for orphan tafamidis approvalhence, acceptable biomarkers are badly needed. Herein, we explored whether peripheral blood cell mRNA expression profiles could differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic V30M FAP patients, and if such a profile would normalize upon tafamidis treatment. We demonstrate that blood cell gene expression patterns reveal sex-independent as well as male and female specific inflammatory signatures in symptomatic FAP patients, but not in asymptomatic carriers, that normalize in FAP patients 6 months after tafamidis treatment. Thus these signatures have potential both as an early diagnostic and as a surrogate biomarker for measuring response to treatment in FAP patients.
Peripheral Blood Cell Gene Expression Diagnostic for Identifying Symptomatic Transthyretin Amyloidosis Patients: Male and Female Specific Signatures.
Age, Specimen partView Samples
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common pain disorder characterized by dysregulation in the processing of pain. Although FM has similarities with other rheumatologic pain disorders, the search for objective markers has not been successful. In the current study we analyzed gene expression in the whole blood of 70 fibromyalgia patients and 70 healthy matched controls. Global molecular profiling revealed an upregulation of several inflammatory molecules in FM patients and downregulation of specific pathways related to hypersensitivity and allergy. There was a differential expression of genes in known pathways for pain processing, such as glutamine/glutamate signaling and axonal development. We also identified a panel of candidate gene expression-based classifiers that could establish an objective blood-based molecular diagnostic to objectively identify FM patients and guide design and testing of new therapies. Ten classifier probesets (CPA3, C11orf83, LOC100131943, RGS17, PARD3B, ANKRD20A9P, TTLL7, C8orf12, KAT2B and RIOK3) provided a diagnostic sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 96%. Molecular scores developed from these classifiers were able to clearly distinguish FM patients from healthy controls. An understanding of molecular dysregulation in fibromyalgia is in its infancy; however the results described herein indicate blood global gene expression profiling provides many testable hypotheses that deserve further exploration.
Genome-wide expression profiling in the peripheral blood of patients with fibromyalgia.
Specimen part, DiseaseView Samples
TMPRSS6 is a type II transmembrane serine protease and is revealed by our work to be part of a low-iron sensing pathway. When animal gets iron deficient, TMPRSS6 is required to shut off hepcidin gene, so as to allow iron to be uptaken from GI tract. The mutant mouse, which was generated by ENU mutagenesis, has developed microcytic anemia. The phenotype is caused by a splicing error in Tmprss6 gene. However, the mechanism of TMPRSS6 effect remains elusive. To gain further insight into the molecular components of the TMPRSS6 signaling pathway, we overexpressed either TMPRSS6 or its mutant version of protein in human liver carcinoma cell line HepG2 cells, and compared the transcription status betweem these two treatments.
The serine protease TMPRSS6 is required to sense iron deficiency.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Rationale: Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) is found in ~25% of 1-year biopsies post-transplant(1, 2). It correlates with decreased graft survival when histological evidence of inflammation is present.(3-5) Identifying the etiology of IFTA is important because longterm graft survival has not changed as expected given improved therapies and a dramatically reduced incidence of acute rejection.(6-8) Methods: Gene expression profiles of 234 samples were obtained with matching clinical and outcome data (7 transplant centers). 81 IFTA samples were divided into subphenotypes by the degree of inflammation on histology: IFTA with acute rejection (AR), IFTA with inflammation and IFTA without inflammation. Samples with AR (n=54) and normally functioning transplants (TX; n=99) were used in comparisons. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling of all IFTA phenotypes were strongly enriched for cAR gene dysregulation pathways, including IFTA samples without histological evidence of inflammation. Thus, by molecular profiling we demonstrate that most IFTA samples have ongoing immune-mediated injury or chronic rejection that is more sensitively detected by gene expression profiling. We also found that the relative expression of AR-affiliated genes correlated with future graft loss in IFTA samples without inflammation. We conclude that undetected and/or undertreated immune rejection is leading to IFTA and graft failure.
Gene Expression in Biopsies of Acute Rejection and Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy Reveals Highly Shared Mechanisms That Correlate With Worse Long-Term Outcomes.
Specimen part, Disease, Disease stageView Samples
The Drosophila MSL complex mediates dosage compensation by increasing transcription of the single X chromosome in males approximately two-fold. This is accomplished through recognition of the X chromosome and subsequent acetylation of histone H4K16 on X-linked genes. Initial binding to the X is thought to occur at a subset of sites. However, the consensus sequence motif of entry sites (MSL recognition element or MRE) is only slightly enriched on the X (~2 fold), and only a fraction of them is utilized by the MSL complex. Here we ask whether chromatin context could distinguish between utilized and non-utilized copies of the motif, by comparing their relative enrichment for histone modifications and chromosomal proteins mapped in the NHGRI modENCODE project. Through a comparative analysis of the chromatin features in male S2 cells, which contain MSL complex, and female Kc cells, which lack the complex, we find that the presence of active chromatin modifications, together with an elevated local GC content in surrounding sequence, has strong predictive value for functional MSL entry sites, independent of MSL binding. We tested these sites for function in Kc cells by RNAi knockdown of Sxl, resulting in induction of MSL complex. We show that ectopic MSL expression in Kc cells leads to H4K16 acetylation around these sites, and a relative increase in X chromosome transcription. Collectively, our results support a model in which a pre-existing active chromatin environment, coincident with H3K36me3, contributes to MSL entry site selection. The consequences of MSL targeting of the male X chromosome include increase in nucleosome lability, enrichment for H4K16 acetylation and JIL-1 kinase, and depletion of linker histone H1 on active X-linked genes. Our finding serves as a model to understand how chromatin and local sequence features are involved in the selection of functional protein binding sites in the genome.
Sequence-specific targeting of dosage compensation in Drosophila favors an active chromatin context.
Cell lineView Samples
Background: We have previously shown that the Gene expression Grade Index (GGI) was able to identify two subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors that were associated with statistically distinct clinical outcomes in both untreated and tamoxifen-treated patients. Here, we aim to investigate the ability of the GGI to predict relapses in postmenopausal women who were treated with tamoxifen (T) or letrozole (L) within the BIG 1-98 trial.
The Gene expression Grade Index: a potential predictor of relapse for endocrine-treated breast cancer patients in the BIG 1-98 trial.
Age, Specimen part, Disease stage, TreatmentView Samples
We report the comparative gene expression between embryonic stem cell derived cranial and spinal motor neurons and multiple time points after induction and primary cultured ocular and spinal motor neurons, using single cell RNA sequencing. Overall design: Single neurons were isolated in 96-well plates and their gene expression profiled using SMART-Seq2 from 8 samples: (1-2) primary cultured oculomotor/trochlear motor neurons and spinal motor neurons collected at embryonic day E11.5 and cultured for 7 days, (3-8) ESC-derived induced cranial and spinal motor neurons at either 2 days, 5 days, or 7 days after plating.
Stem cell-derived cranial and spinal motor neurons reveal proteostatic differences between ALS resistant and sensitive motor neurons.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
In the present work, we have used whole genome expression profiling of peripheral blood samples from 51 patients with biopsy-proven acute kidney transplant rejection and 24 patients with excellent function and biopsy-proven normal transplant histology. The results demonstrate that there are 1738 probesets on the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip representing 1472 unique genes which are differentially expressed in the peripheral blood during an acute kidney transplant rejection. By ranking these results we have identified minimal sets of 50 to 150 probesets with predictive classification accuracies for AR of greater than 90% established with several different prediction tools including DLDA and PAM. We have demonstrated that a subset of peripheral blood gene expression signatures can also diagnose four different subtypes of AR (Banff Borderline, IA, IB and IIA) and the top 100 ranked classifiers have greater than 89% predictive accuracy. Finally, we have demonstrated that there are gene signatures for early and late AR defined as less than or greater than one year post-transplant with greater than 86% predictive accuracies. We also confirmed that there are 439 time-independent gene classifiers for AR. Based on these results, we conclude that peripheral blood gene expression profiling can be used to diagnose AR at any time in the first 5 years post-transplant in the setting of acute kidney transplant dysfunction not caused by BK nephropathy, other infections, drug-induced nephrotoxicity or ureteral obstruction.
Molecular classifiers for acute kidney transplant rejection in peripheral blood by whole genome gene expression profiling.
Specimen partView Samples