Epigenetic inheritance contributes fundamentally to transgenerational physiology and fitness. Mechanistic understanding of RNA-mediated chromatin modification and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, which in C. elegans can be triggered by exogenous double-stranded RNA (exo-dsRNA) or facilitated by endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), has mainly been limited to the post-initiation phases of silencing. Indeed, the dynamic process by which nuclear RNAi engages a transcriptionally active target, before the repressive state is stably established, remains largely a mystery. Here we found that the onset of exo-dsRNA-induced nuclear RNAi is a transgenerational process, and that establishment requires SET-32, one of the three putative histone methyltransferases (HMTs) that are required for H3K9me3 deposition at the nuclear RNAi targets. We also performed multigenerational whole-genome analyses to examine the establishment of silencing at endogenous targets of germline nuclear RNAi. The nuclear Argonaute (AGO) protein HRDE-1 is essential for the maintenance of nuclear RNAi. Repairing a loss-of-function mutation in hrde-1 by CRISPR restored the silencing of endogenous targets in animals carrying wild type set-32. However, for numerous endogenous targets, repairing the hrde-1 mutation in a set-32;hrde-1 double mutant failed to restore their silencing states in up to 20 generations after the hrde-1 repair, using a similar genome editing approach. We found that despite a prominent role in the establishment of silencing, however, set-32 is completely dispensable for the maintenance of silencing once HRDE-1-dependent gene repression is established. Our study indicates that: 1) initiation and maintenance of siRNA-guided transcriptional repression are two distinct processes with different genetic requirements; and 2) the rate-limiting step of the establishment phase is a transgenerational, chromatin-based process. In addition, our study reveals a novel paradigm in which a heterochromatin factor primarily functions to promote the initiation of transgenerational silencing, expanding mechanistic understanding of the well-recognized role of heterochromatin in epigenetic maintenance. Overall design: 23 samples were analyzed using RNA-seq
C. elegans Heterochromatin Factor SET-32 Plays an Essential Role in Transgenerational Establishment of Nuclear RNAi-Mediated Epigenetic Silencing.
Sex, SubjectView Samples
SIN3 is a master transcriptional scaffold protein. SIN3 interacts with RPD3 and other accessory proteins to form a histone modifying complex. A single Sin3A gene encodes multiple isoforms of SIN3, of which SIN3 187 and SIN3 220 are the predominant isoforms. Previous studies demonstrated that SIN3 isoforms play non-redundant roles during fly development. In the current study, we sought to investigate the genes regulated by SIN3 187. Overall design: S2 cells and cells carrying a stable transgene of SIN3 187HA (SIN3 187HA cells) were treated with 0.07 ÂµM CuSO4. CuSO4 treatment led to ectopic expression of SIN3 187HA. S2 cells were used as a control. Following induction, total mRNA was extracted. mRNA profiling of these samples were performed by deep sequencing using Illumina Hiseq2500. Three biological replicates were performed.
Genome-wide studies reveal novel and distinct biological pathways regulated by SIN3 isoforms.
Cell line, SubjectView Samples
PTEN is thought to play a critical role in T cell activation by negatively regulating the PI3K signaling pathway important for cellular activation, growth, and proliferation. T cells from mice in which PTEN was conditionally deleted in the thymus were reported to display CD28-independent IL-2 production and relative resistance to anergy induction. However, such observations could have stemmed from alterations in T cell development due to early deletion in thymocytes. To directly eliminate PTEN in post-thymic T cells, we utilized CAR Tg x PTENflox/flox mice which enabled gene deletion using a Cre adenovirus in vitro. Gene expression profiling revealed a small subset of induced genes that were augmented upon PTEN deletion and T cell stimulation. Our results indicate that deletion of PTEN can augment the activation of post-thymic T cells. Nonetheless, PTEN inhibition may be a viable target for immune potentiation due to increased cytokine production by activated CD4+ cells.
Conditional deletion of PTEN in peripheral T cells augments TCR-mediated activation but does not abrogate CD28 dependency or prevent anergy induction.
Specimen partView Samples
T cell anergy is one of the mechanisms contributing to peripheral tolerance, particularly in the context of progressively growing tumors and in tolerogenic treatments promoting allograft acceptance. We recently reported that early growth response gene 2 (Egr2) is a critical transcription factor for the induction of anergy in vitro and in vivo, which was identified based on its ability to regulate the expression of inhibitory signaling molecules diacylglycerol kinase (DGK)-a and -z. We reasoned that other transcriptional targets of Egr2 might encode additional factors important for T cell anergy and immune regulation. Thus, we conducted two sets of genome-wide screens: gene expression profiling of wild type versus Egr2-deleted T cells treated under anergizing conditions, and a ChIP-Seq analysis to identify genes that bind Egr2 in anergic cells. Merging of these data sets revealed 49 targets that are directly regulated by Egr2. Among these are inhibitory signaling molecules previously reported to contribute to T cell anergy, but unexpectedly, also cell surface molecules and secreted factors, including lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (Lag3), Class-I-MHC-restricted T cell associated molecule (Crtam), Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A), and chemokine CCL1. These observations suggest that anergic T cells might not simply be functionally inert, and may have additional functional properties oriented towards other cellular components of the immune system.
Egr2-dependent gene expression profiling and ChIP-Seq reveal novel biologic targets in T cell anergy.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Despite the frequent detection of circulating tumor antigen-specific T cells, either spontaneously or following active immunization or adoptive transfer, immune-mediated cancer regression occurs only in the minority of patients. One theoretical rate-limiting step is whether effector T cells successfully migrate into metastatic tumor sites. Affymetrix gene expression profiling performed on a series of metastatic melanoma biopsies revealed a major segregation of samples based on the presence or absence of T cell-associated transcripts. The presence of lymphocytes correlated with the expression of defined chemokine genes. A subset of 6 chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10) was confirmed by protein array and/or quantitative RT-PCR to be preferentially expressed in tumors that contained T cells. Corresponding chemokine receptors were found to be upregulated on human CD8+ effector T cells, and transwell migration assays confirmed the ability of each of these chemokines to promote migration of CD8+ effector cells in vitro. Screening by chemokine protein array identified a subset of melanoma cell lines produced a similar broad array of chemokines. These melanoma cells more effectively recruited human CD8+ effector T cells when implanted as xenografts in NOD/scid mice in vivo. Chemokine blockade with specific antibodies inhibited migration of CD8+ T cells. Our results suggest that lack of critical chemokines in a subset of melanoma metastases may limit the migration of activated T cells, which in turn could limit the effectiveness of anti-tumor immunity.
Chemokine expression in melanoma metastases associated with CD8+ T-cell recruitment.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
We identified a subset of hepatocytes with high Telomerase Reverse transcriptase (Tert) that functions as the repopulating stem cells in homeostasis and injury. We performed RNA-Seq to reveal the differences of these cells and the other hepatocytes. Overall design: RNA mRNA profiles of TERT(High) and TERT (Low) hepatocytes from 2-month old mice were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina platform.
Distributed hepatocytes expressing telomerase repopulate the liver in homeostasis and injury.
Age, Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
To understand better the factors contributing to keratoconus (KTCN), we used RNA sequencing to perform a transcriptome profile of human KTCN corneas. Over 82% of the genes and almost 75% of the transcripts detected as differentially expressed in KTCN and non-KTCN corneas were confirmed in the replication study using another set of samples. We used these differentially expressed genes to generate a network of KTCN-deregulated genes. We found an extensive disruption of collagen synthesis and maturation pathways, as well as downregulation of the core elements of the TGF-ß, Hippo, and Wnt signaling pathways influencing corneal organization. We identified long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and conducted a computational analysis of their potential functions, and found that lncRNAs regulated the processing and expression of the aforementioned genes. This first comprehensive transcriptome profiling of human KTCN corneas points further to a complex etiology of KTCN. Overall design: Transcription profiling of 25 KTCN and 25 non-KTCN corneas using RNA-Seq
Collagen synthesis disruption and downregulation of core elements of TGF-β, Hippo, and Wnt pathways in keratoconus corneas.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients.
Altered gene expression pattern in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Barrett's esophagus is characterized by the replacement of squamous epithelium with specialized intestinal metaplastic mucosa. The exact mechanisms of initiation and development of Barrett's metaplasia remain unknown, but a hypothesis of successful adaptation against noxious reflux components has been proposed. To search for the repertoire of adaptation mechanisms of Barrett's metaplasia, we employed high-throughput functional genomic and proteomic methods that defined the molecular background of metaplastic mucosa resistance to reflux. Transcriptional profiling was established for 23 pairs of esophageal squamous epithelium and Barrett's metaplasia tissue samples using Affymetrix U133A 2.0 GeneChips and validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Differences in protein composition were assessed by electrophoretic and mass-spectrometry-based methods. Among 2,822 genes differentially expressed between Barrett's metaplasia and squamous epithelium, we observed significantly overexpressed metaplastic mucosa genes that encode cytokines and growth factors, constituents of extracellular matrix, basement membrane and tight junctions, and proteins involved in prostaglandin and phosphoinositol metabolism, nitric oxide production, and bioenergetics. Their expression likely reflects defense and repair responses of metaplastic mucosa, whereas overexpression of genes encoding heat shock proteins and several protein kinases in squamous epithelium may reflect lower resistance of normal esophageal epithelium than Barrett's metaplasia to reflux components. Despite the methodological and interpretative difficulties in data analyses discussed in this paper, our studies confirm that Barrett's metaplasia may be regarded as a specific microevolution allowing for accumulation of mucosal morphological and physiological changes that better protect against reflux injury.
Molecular defense mechanisms of Barrett's metaplasia estimated by an integrative genomics.
Sex, AgeView Samples