Purpose: identify sites in endogenous mRNAs that are cut by KSHV SOX; Method: parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE, following Zhai et al., 2014); Results: SOX cuts at discrete locations in mRNAs Overall design: human Xrn1 was knocked down in HEK293T cells by shRNAs or siRNAs to stabilize degradation fragments with free 5'' ends; GFP-SOX or GFP were transfected for ~24 hrs; total RNA samples were collected and subjected to PARE protocol (Zhai et al., 2014)
Transcriptome-Wide Cleavage Site Mapping on Cellular mRNAs Reveals Features Underlying Sequence-Specific Cleavage by the Viral Ribonuclease SOX.
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To elucidated through an unbiased manner which genes and pathways are differentially regulated during mouse colonic inflammation followed by a tissue regeneration phase. In particular, we took advantage of the widely used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced model of colitis. This model is one of the few characterized by a phase of damage followed by a phase of regeneration. Therefore, this model gave the possibility to identify also sets of genes essential in the regeneration phase, a key step towards the resolution of the inflammation. In short, mice were exposed to DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, then allowed to recover for the following 7 days. During this period, we collected colonic tissue samples every second day to then be analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Next, we performed a RNA-seq analysis from colonic samples throughout the experiment and computed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) taking the complete kinetics of expression into consideration for p-value estimation using EdgeR. Overall design: C57BL/6J female mice were treated with 2.5% DSS in order to induce colinic inflammation. 2-3 animals were sacrificed at different time points when the colonic tissue was collected.
Conserved transcriptomic profile between mouse and human colitis allows unsupervised patient stratification.
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Here we propose the direct conversion of human somatic cells into naive induced pluripotent cells (niPSC). Dataset: 7 expanded niPSC lines (4 from BJ cells, 1 from HFF-1, 1 from WI38, 1from IMR90), 1 freshly-isolated primary colonies of niPSC from BJ, 1 established naive embryonic line H9, 1 primed induced pluripotent cell line (from BJ), 1 sample of BJ fibroblasts, 1 sample of WI38 fibroblasts, 1 sample IMR90 fibroblasts.
Direct generation of human naive induced pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells in microfluidics.
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Self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) cultured in serum-LIF is incomplete with some cells initiating differentiation. While this is reflected in heterogeneous expression of naive pluripotency transcription factors (TFs), the link between TF heterogeneity and differentiation is not fully understood. Here we purify ESCs with distinct TF expression levels from serum-LIF cultures to uncover early events during commitment from nave pluripotency. ESCs carrying fluorescent Nanog and Esrrb reporters show Esrrb downregulation only in NANOGlow cells. Independent Esrrb reporter lines demonstrate that ESRRBnegative ESCs cannot effectively self-renew. Upon ESRRB loss, pre-implantation pluripotency gene expression collapses. ChIP-Seq identifies different regulatory element classes that bind both OCT4 and NANOG in ESRRBhigh cells. Class I elements lose NANOG and OCT4 binding in ESRRBnegative ESCs and associate with genes expressed preferentially in nave ESCs. In contrast, class II elements retain OCT4 but not NANOG binding in ESRRBnegative cells and associate with more broadly expressed genes. Therefore, mechanistic differences in TF function act cumulatively to restrict potency during exit from nave pluripotency.
Esrrb extinction triggers dismantling of naïve pluripotency and marks commitment to differentiation.
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Background and Aims: It is well demonstrated that in the beta cell population of the pancreas there is a dynamic turnover, which results from the net balance of several processes; beta cell replication, apoptosis and neogenesis. These processes have been studied in partial pancreatectomy and glucagon-like peptide 1 treated animals, where an increase in pancreas regeneration has been observed. Similarly, sodium tungstate, which decreases hyperglycemia in several animal models of diabetes, promotes a rise in the beta cell mass of nSTZ and STZ animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pancreas regeneration remain unknown. Therefore the objective of this study is to identify which genes are up or down regulated in the increase of the beta cell population of STZ rats treated with sodium tungstate.
Molecular mechanisms of tungstate-induced pancreatic plasticity: a transcriptomics approach.
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The goal of this analysis was to investigate the targets of the influenza A host shutoff ribonuclease PA-X. We profiled the relative levels of cellular RNAs in cells infected with influenza A virus (A/PuertoRico/8/1934 H1N1) comparing wild-type and mutants that make reduced levels of PA-X and/or make a truncated and inactive PA-X. We also profiled relative RNA levels in cells overexpressing wild-type PA-X or a catalytically inactive mutant (D108A). Overall design: for extopic expression, PA-X (from the A/PuertoRico/8/1934 H1N1 (PR8) strain) was expressed in A549 cells using a doxycyline-inducible transgene for 18 hrs; for infection, A549 cells were infected with the wild-type PR8 strain or mutant strain that carried mutations that reduce PA-X production or activity for 15 hrs. rRNA deplete RNA was subjected to high-throughput sequencing
The Influenza A Virus Endoribonuclease PA-X Usurps Host mRNA Processing Machinery to Limit Host Gene Expression.
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Tissue repair is a subset of a broad repertoire of IL-4/IL-13-dependent host responses during helminth infections. Here, we show that IL-4/IL-13 alone were not sufficient, but IL-4/IL-13 together with apoptotic cells induced the tissue repair program in macrophages. Genetic ablation of sensors of apoptotic cells impaired the proliferation of tissue-resident macrophages and induction of anti-inflammatory/tissue repair genes in the lung following helminth infection or the damage caused by induction of colitis in the gut. In contrast, recognition of apoptotic cells was dispensable for cytokine-dependent induction of pattern recognition receptor, cell adhesion or chemotaxis genes in macrophages. Detection of apoptotic cells can therefore spatially compartmentalize or prevent premature or ectopic activity of pleiotropic, soluble cytokines, such as IL-4/IL-13. Overall design: RNA sequencing of lung resident macrophages from WT and Axl-/-Mertk-/- mice upon infection with N. brasiliensis
Macrophage function in tissue repair and remodeling requires IL-4 or IL-13 with apoptotic cells.
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CD4(+) type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells are induced in the periphery and have a pivotal role in promoting and maintaining tolerance. The absence of surface markers that uniquely identify Tr1 cells has limited their study and clinical applications. By gene expression profiling of human Tr1 cell clones, we identified the surface markers CD49b and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) as being stably and selectively coexpressed on mouse and human Tr1 cells. We showed the specificity of these markers in mouse models of intestinal inflammation and helminth infection and in the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The coexpression of CD49b and LAG-3 enables the isolation of highly suppressive human Tr1 cells from in vitro anergized cultures and allows the tracking of Tr1 cells in the peripheral blood of subjects who developed tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The use of these markers makes it feasible to track Tr1 cells in vivo and purify Tr1 cells for cell therapy to induce or restore tolerance in subjects with immune-mediated diseases.
Coexpression of CD49b and LAG-3 identifies human and mouse T regulatory type 1 cells.
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We found that the non-essential amino acid L-Proline (L-Pro) acts as a signaling molecule that promotes the conversion of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into mesenchymal-like, spindle-shaped, highly motile, invasive pluripotent stem cells. This embryonic stem cell-to-mesenchymal-like transition (esMT) is accompanied by a genome-wide remodeling of the transcriptome
L-Proline induces a mesenchymal-like invasive program in embryonic stem cells by remodeling H3K9 and H3K36 methylation.
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