Filtered selection coupled with support vector machines generate functionally relevant prediction model for colorectal cancer. In this study, we built a model that uses Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify cancer and normal samples using Affymetrix exon microarray data obtained from 90 samples of 48 patients diagnosed with CRC. From the 22,011 genes, we selected the 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 genes most relevant to CRC using the Minimum-RedundancyMaximum-Relevance (mRMR) technique. With these gene sets, an SVM model was designed using four different kernel types (linear, polynomial, radial basis function and sigmoid).
Filtered selection coupled with support vector machines generate a functionally relevant prediction model for colorectal cancer.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, Disease stageView Samples
The molecular mechanisms by which individuals subjected to environmental heat stress either adapt or develop heat-related complications are not well understood. We analysed the changes in blood mononuclear gene expression patterns in human volunteers exposed to an extreme heat in a sauna (temperature of 78 6 C).
A Model of Exposure to Extreme Environmental Heat Uncovers the Human Transcriptome to Heat Stress.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, Treatment, Subject, TimeView Samples
Transcriptome analysis following Bcl6 induction (24h doxycycline) in mouse ES-cell-derived cortical progenitors (differentiation day 12) shows that Bcl6 promotes a neurogenic transcription program and represses selective genes of the main proliferative pathways. Overall design: RNA-seq screen for Bcl6-elicited gene expression changes in in vitro cortical progenitors (n=4)
Cortical Neurogenesis Requires Bcl6-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of Multiple Self-Renewal-Promoting Extrinsic Pathways.
Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Rationale: Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) is found in ~25% of 1-year biopsies post-transplant(1, 2). It correlates with decreased graft survival when histological evidence of inflammation is present.(3-5) Identifying the etiology of IFTA is important because longterm graft survival has not changed as expected given improved therapies and a dramatically reduced incidence of acute rejection.(6-8) Methods: Gene expression profiles of 234 samples were obtained with matching clinical and outcome data (7 transplant centers). 81 IFTA samples were divided into subphenotypes by the degree of inflammation on histology: IFTA with acute rejection (AR), IFTA with inflammation and IFTA without inflammation. Samples with AR (n=54) and normally functioning transplants (TX; n=99) were used in comparisons. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling of all IFTA phenotypes were strongly enriched for cAR gene dysregulation pathways, including IFTA samples without histological evidence of inflammation. Thus, by molecular profiling we demonstrate that most IFTA samples have ongoing immune-mediated injury or chronic rejection that is more sensitively detected by gene expression profiling. We also found that the relative expression of AR-affiliated genes correlated with future graft loss in IFTA samples without inflammation. We conclude that undetected and/or undertreated immune rejection is leading to IFTA and graft failure.
Gene Expression in Biopsies of Acute Rejection and Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy Reveals Highly Shared Mechanisms That Correlate With Worse Long-Term Outcomes.
Specimen part, Disease, Disease stageView Samples
Despite significant improvements in life expectancy of kidney transplant patients due to advances in surgery and immunosuppression, Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (CAN) remains a daunting problem. A complex network of cellular mechanisms in both graft and peripheral immune compartments complicates the non-invasive diagnosis of CAN, which still requires biopsy histology. This is compounded by non-immunological factors contributing to graft injury. There is a pressing need to identify and validate minimally invasive biomarkers for CAN to serve as early predictors of graft loss and as metrics for managing long-term immunosuppression.
Biomarkers for early and late stage chronic allograft nephropathy by proteogenomic profiling of peripheral blood.
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In the present work, we have used whole genome expression profiling of peripheral blood samples from 51 patients with biopsy-proven acute kidney transplant rejection and 24 patients with excellent function and biopsy-proven normal transplant histology. The results demonstrate that there are 1738 probesets on the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip representing 1472 unique genes which are differentially expressed in the peripheral blood during an acute kidney transplant rejection. By ranking these results we have identified minimal sets of 50 to 150 probesets with predictive classification accuracies for AR of greater than 90% established with several different prediction tools including DLDA and PAM. We have demonstrated that a subset of peripheral blood gene expression signatures can also diagnose four different subtypes of AR (Banff Borderline, IA, IB and IIA) and the top 100 ranked classifiers have greater than 89% predictive accuracy. Finally, we have demonstrated that there are gene signatures for early and late AR defined as less than or greater than one year post-transplant with greater than 86% predictive accuracies. We also confirmed that there are 439 time-independent gene classifiers for AR. Based on these results, we conclude that peripheral blood gene expression profiling can be used to diagnose AR at any time in the first 5 years post-transplant in the setting of acute kidney transplant dysfunction not caused by BK nephropathy, other infections, drug-induced nephrotoxicity or ureteral obstruction.
Molecular classifiers for acute kidney transplant rejection in peripheral blood by whole genome gene expression profiling.
Specimen partView Samples
The ability for cut tissues to join together and form a chimeric organism is a remarkable property of many plants, however, grafting is poorly characterized at the molecular level. To better understand this process we monitored genome-wide temporal and spatial gene expression changes in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls. Tissues above and below the graft rapidly developed an asymmetry such that many genes were more highly expressed on one side than the other. This asymmetry correlated with sugar responsive genes and we observed an accumulation of starch above the graft that decreased along with asymmetry once the sugar-transporting vascular tissues reconnected. Despite the initial starvation response below the graft, many genes associated with vascular formation were rapidly activated in grafted tissues but not in cut and separated tissues indicating that a recognition mechanism activated that was independent of functional vascular connections. Auxin which is transported cell-to-cell, had a rapidly elevated response that was symmetric, suggesting that auxin was perceived by the root within hours of tissue attachment to activate the vascular regeneration process. A subset of genes were expressed only in grafted tissues, indicating that wound healing proceeded via different mechanisms depending on the presence or absence of adjoining tissues. Such a recognition process could have broader relevance for tissue regeneration, inter-tissue communication and tissue fusion events. Overall design: We analyzed the poly-adenylated transcriptomes of Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyle tissue during grafting. Our dataset contains 82 strand-specific samples, whereas each condition is represented by two biological replicates.
Transcriptome dynamics at <i>Arabidopsis</i> graft junctions reveal an intertissue recognition mechanism that activates vascular regeneration.
Mice overexpressing galectin-8 (gal-8 Tg), a secreted mammalian lectin, exhibit enhanced bone turnover and reduced bone mass, similar to cases of post-menopausal osteoporosis. Gal-8 knockout (KO) mice have increased bone mass accrual at young age, but exhibit accelerated bone loss during adulthood. These phenotypes can be attributed to gal-8-mediated increase in RANKL expression that promotes osteoclastogenesis, combined with direct inhibition of osteoblasts differentiation, evident by reduced BMP signaling, SMAD phosphorylation, and reduced expression of osteoblasts differentiation markers OSX, OCN, RUNX2, DMP-1 and ALP. Gal-8 mRNA positively correlates with the mRNA levels of osteoclastogenic markers RANKL, TRAP and CTSK in human femurs. Collectively, these findings identify gal-8 as a new physiological player in the regulation of bone mass.
Ablation of the mammalian lectin galectin-8 induces bone defects in mice.
Specimen part, Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
To identify the activity-induced gene expression programs in inhibitory and excitatory neurons, we analyzed RNA extracted from cultured E14 mouse MGE- and CTX-derived neurons (DIV 10) after these cultures were membrane-depolarized for 0, 1 and 6 hrs with 55mM extracellular KCl. To identify the gene programs regulated in these cells by the activity-induced early-response transcription factor Npas4, we repeated the same experiment in the MGE- and CTX-cultures lacking Npas4 (Npas4-KO).
Npas4 regulates excitatory-inhibitory balance within neural circuits through cell-type-specific gene programs.
Specimen part, Treatment, TimeView Samples
Six DD class GABAergic neurons are generated in the embryo to synapse with ventral muscles and receive input from cholinergic neurons in the dorsal nerve cord. After hatching and toward the end of the first larval (L1) stage, DD neurons reverse polarity (i.e., synapse with dorsal muscles, receive ventral cholinergic inputs). Expression profiles were generated from DD neurons in the early L1 stage before the initiation of the remodeling program.
Transcriptional Control of Synaptic Remodeling through Regulated Expression of an Immunoglobulin Superfamily Protein.
Specimen partView Samples