A subpopulation of pericytes expressing the Glast-CreERT2 transgene (Type A pericytes) has recently been identified as the main source of stromal scar tissue that forms after SCI. Identification of molecules associated with pericyte-derived scarring may offer new therapeutic targets to facilitate axon regeneration following central nervous system (CNS) injury. We conducted genome-wide RNA sequencing of (i) uninjured spinal cord segments and (ii) lesion sites presenting full or attenuated pericyte-derived scarring 14 days after SCI. Overall design: Adult Glast-Rasless-YFP (Glast-CreERT2 x R26R-YFP x Rasless) mice receiving vehicle (Veh) or tamoxifen (Tam) underwent dorsal hemisection at high thoracic level. Fourteen days after SCI, injury sites were dissected out, homogenized and total RNA was isolated from lesions presenting (i) dense (Veh, n=4) and (ii) attenuated (Tam, n=4) pericyte-derived scarring. Age-matched Glast-Rasless-YFP mice served as uninjured controls (n=4).
Reducing Pericyte-Derived Scarring Promotes Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury.
Specimen part, Treatment, Subject, TimeView Samples
Primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) were exposed to either salt stress (80mM KCl) or heat stress (44ºC). Newly transcribed RNA was labelled by adding 500µM 4-thiouridine (4sU) to the cell culture media for 1h. Total cellular RNA was isolated using Trizol. Newly transcribed RNA was purified following the protocol described in Raedle et al. JoVE 2013. Overall design: Newly transcribed RNA was labelled in one hour intervals during either salt or heat stress (prior to stress, 0-1h or 1-2h). All 4sU-RNA samples were sent for sequencing. Two independent biological replicates were analysed.
HSV-1-induced disruption of transcription termination resembles a cellular stress response but selectively increases chromatin accessibility downstream of genes.
Specimen part, Subject, TimeView Samples
Quiescent stem cells of glioblastoma (GBM), a malignant primary brain tumor, are potential sources for recurrence after therapy. However, the gene expression program underlying the physiology of GBM stem cells remains unclear. We have isolated quiescent GBM cells by engineering them with a knock-in H2B-GFP proliferation reporter and expanding them in a 3D tumor organoid model that mimics tumor heterogeneity. H2B-GFP label retaining quiescent cells were subjected to stem cell assays and RNA-Seq gene expression analysis. While quiescent GBM cells were similar in clonal culture assays to their proliferative counterparts, they displayed higher therapy resistance. Interestingly, quiescent GBM cells upregulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes and genes of extracellular matrix components. Our findings connect quiescent GBM cells with an EMT-like shift, possibly explaining how GBM stem cells achieve high therapy resistance and invasiveness, and suggest new targets to abrogate GBM. Overall design: Glioblastoma cancer cells in 3D organoid culture were pulsed for 2 weeks with H2B-GFP, then chased either 2 or 4 weeks. Label-retaining GFP-high cells (quiescent) were separated from bulk population, and both populations were analyzed by RNA-Seq.
Gene signatures of quiescent glioblastoma cells reveal mesenchymal shift and interactions with niche microenvironment.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
EphB receptors regulate the proliferation and positioning of intestinal stem and progenitor cells. In addition, they can act as tumor promoters for adenoma development, but suppress progression to invasive carcinoma. Here we used imatinib to abrogate Abl kinase activity in ApcMin/+ mice and in mice with LGR5+ stem cells genetically targeted for APC. This treatment inhibited the tumor-promoting effects of EphB signaling without attenuating EphB-mediated tumor suppression, demonstrating the role of EphB signaling in intestinal tumor initiation. The investigated treatment regimen extended the lifespan of ApcMin/+ mice, and reduced cell proliferation in cultured slices of adenomas from FAP patients. These findings connect the EphB signaling pathway to the regulation of intestinal adenoma initiation via Abl kinase. Our findings may have clinical implications for pharmacological therapy against adenoma formation and cancer progression in patients predisposed to develop colon cancer.
An EphB-Abl signaling pathway is associated with intestinal tumor initiation and growth.
Specimen partView Samples
Primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) were infected with wild-type simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain 17 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10. Newly transcribed RNA was labelled by adding 500ÂµM 4-thiouridine (4sU) to the cell culture media for 1h. Total cellular RNA was isolated using Trizol. Newly transcribed RNA was purified following the protocol described in Raedle et al. JoVE 2013. Overall design: Newly transcribed RNA was labelled in one hour intervals during the first eight hours of HSV-1 infection. All nine 4sU-RNA samples as well as total cellular RNA of every second hour of infection were sent for sequencing. Two independent biological replicates were analysed.
Prediction of Poly(A) Sites by Poly(A) Read Mapping.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Presbycusis age-related hearing loss is the number one communicative disorder of our aged population. Here we analyzed gene expression for a set of GABA receptors in the cochlea of aging CBA mice using the Affymetrix GeneChip MOE430A. Functional phenotypic hearing measures distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitudes (four age groups) were made. The gene expression changes from RMA normalized microarray data (40 replicates) were first subjected to one-way ANOVA, and then linear regression was performed. In addition, the log signal ratio was converted to fold change, and selected gene expression changes were confirmed by relative real-time PCR. Major findings: expression of GABA-A receptor subunit 6was upregulated with age and hearing loss, whereas subunit 1 was repressed. In addition, GABA-A receptor associated protein like-1 and GABA-A receptor associated protein like-2 were strongly downregulated with age and hearing impairment. Lastly, gene expression measures were correlated with pathway/network relationships relevant to the inner ear using Pathway Architect, to identify key pathways consistent with the gene expression changes observed.
Novel approach to select genes from RMA normalized microarray data using functional hearing tests in aging mice.
We applied RNA-seq analysis to human islet cells, received from 3 independent donors, treated with either redifferentiation cocktail + ARX shRNA, or redifferentiation cocktail + control shRNA or left untreated. Overall design: Examination of the effect of ARX inhibition on redifferentiation of ß-cell-derived (BCD) cells
Redifferentiation of expanded human islet β cells by inhibition of ARX.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
This is an initial experiment which was performed in order to identify novel transcriptional targets of the tumor suppressor p53
p53 activates the PANK1/miRNA-107 gene leading to downregulation of CDK6 and p130 cell cycle proteins.
Specimen part, Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
The purpose of this experiment was to identify oestrogen regulated genes in human primary cell cultures of neuronal and glial cells modelling the developing human nervous system. We were especially interested in genes involved in proliferation, differentiation and migration of neuronal cells and genes involved in or linked to neurodegenerative diseases. We have therefore assessed gene expression changes, using Affymetrix GeneChips (HG-U133A), of oestrogen treated human neuronal/ glial cell cultures. We continued with 14 selected genes and confirmed the gene expression changes, by relative quantitative real time PCR, of 6 genes (p< 0.05) important in neuronal development, three of which also are suggested to have links to neurodegenerative diseases.
Transcriptional analysis of estrogen effects in human embryonic neurons and glial cells.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Gliomas arising in the brainstem and thalamus are devastating tumors that are difficult to surgically resect due to their proximity to eloquent brain structures. Here, we performed a comprehesive genomic and epigenomic study, using gene expression and methylation microarrays, to research on th different genomic and epigenetic signatures between brainstem, thalamic, and supratentorial gliomas.
Exome sequencing identifies somatic gain-of-function PPM1D mutations in brainstem gliomas.
Sex, AgeView Samples