Primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) were exposed to either salt stress (80mM KCl) or heat stress (44ºC). Newly transcribed RNA was labelled by adding 500µM 4-thiouridine (4sU) to the cell culture media for 1h. Total cellular RNA was isolated using Trizol. Newly transcribed RNA was purified following the protocol described in Raedle et al. JoVE 2013. Overall design: Newly transcribed RNA was labelled in one hour intervals during either salt or heat stress (prior to stress, 0-1h or 1-2h). All 4sU-RNA samples were sent for sequencing. Two independent biological replicates were analysed.
HSV-1-induced disruption of transcription termination resembles a cellular stress response but selectively increases chromatin accessibility downstream of genes.
Specimen part, Subject, TimeView Samples
Quiescent stem cells of glioblastoma (GBM), a malignant primary brain tumor, are potential sources for recurrence after therapy. However, the gene expression program underlying the physiology of GBM stem cells remains unclear. We have isolated quiescent GBM cells by engineering them with a knock-in H2B-GFP proliferation reporter and expanding them in a 3D tumor organoid model that mimics tumor heterogeneity. H2B-GFP label retaining quiescent cells were subjected to stem cell assays and RNA-Seq gene expression analysis. While quiescent GBM cells were similar in clonal culture assays to their proliferative counterparts, they displayed higher therapy resistance. Interestingly, quiescent GBM cells upregulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes and genes of extracellular matrix components. Our findings connect quiescent GBM cells with an EMT-like shift, possibly explaining how GBM stem cells achieve high therapy resistance and invasiveness, and suggest new targets to abrogate GBM. Overall design: Glioblastoma cancer cells in 3D organoid culture were pulsed for 2 weeks with H2B-GFP, then chased either 2 or 4 weeks. Label-retaining GFP-high cells (quiescent) were separated from bulk population, and both populations were analyzed by RNA-Seq.
Gene signatures of quiescent glioblastoma cells reveal mesenchymal shift and interactions with niche microenvironment.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
We performed an analysis of transcriptomic responses to auxin within four distinct tissues of the Arabidopsis thaliana root. This high-resolution dataset shows how different cell types are predisposed to react to auxin with discrete transcriptional responses. The sensitivity provided by the analysis lies in the ability to detect cell-type specific responses diluted in organ-level analyses. This dataset provides a novel resource to examine how auxin, a widespread signal in plant development, influences differentiation and patterning in the plant through tissue-specific transcriptional regulation.
A map of cell type-specific auxin responses.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
This is an initial experiment which was performed in order to identify novel transcriptional targets of the tumor suppressor p53
p53 activates the PANK1/miRNA-107 gene leading to downregulation of CDK6 and p130 cell cycle proteins.
Specimen part, Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
The purpose of this experiment was to identify oestrogen regulated genes in human primary cell cultures of neuronal and glial cells modelling the developing human nervous system. We were especially interested in genes involved in proliferation, differentiation and migration of neuronal cells and genes involved in or linked to neurodegenerative diseases. We have therefore assessed gene expression changes, using Affymetrix GeneChips (HG-U133A), of oestrogen treated human neuronal/ glial cell cultures. We continued with 14 selected genes and confirmed the gene expression changes, by relative quantitative real time PCR, of 6 genes (p< 0.05) important in neuronal development, three of which also are suggested to have links to neurodegenerative diseases.
Transcriptional analysis of estrogen effects in human embryonic neurons and glial cells.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Gliomas arising in the brainstem and thalamus are devastating tumors that are difficult to surgically resect due to their proximity to eloquent brain structures. Here, we performed a comprehesive genomic and epigenomic study, using gene expression and methylation microarrays, to research on th different genomic and epigenetic signatures between brainstem, thalamic, and supratentorial gliomas.
Exome sequencing identifies somatic gain-of-function PPM1D mutations in brainstem gliomas.
Sex, AgeView Samples
To provide a comprehensive understanding of how GC affect adipose tissue and adipocyte function, we analyzed patterns of gene expression after culture of abdominal subcutaneous (sc) and omental (Om))
Pathways regulated by glucocorticoids in omental and subcutaneous human adipose tissues: a microarray study.
Twenty-one genes (27 probe sets) were up-regulated in CAF, as compared with NF. Known functions of these genes relate to paracrine or intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, extracellular matrix and cell adhesion/migration. Ten genes (14 probe sets) were down-regulated in CAF, including the pluripotency transcription factor KLF4. Quantitative RTPCR analysis of 10 genes validated the array results. Immunohistochemical staining for three gene products confirmed stromal expression in terms of location and relative quantity. Surprisingly, the variability of gene expression was slightly higher in NF than in CAF, suggesting inter-individual heterogeneity of normal stroma.
Heterogeneity of gene expression in stromal fibroblasts of human breast carcinomas and normal breast.
Specimen partView Samples
Background & Aims: MiRNAs are small (~22 nucleotide), non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression through imperfect complementarity with target messenger RNAs. The function of miRNA in mammalian organogenesis is largely unknown. Conditional loss-of-function of Dicer, the enzyme that processes precursor miRNA transcripts into their mature, active form, has been shown to cause severe defects in a number of organ systems. Here we address the role of Dicer in liver development and function. Methods: Mice lacking Dicer function in hepatocytes were generated using an Afp-Cre strain to drive deletion of a floxed Dicer allele. Deletion of the flox-dicer allele was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Decreased miRNA levels detected by quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed loss of Dicer function. Gene expression microarray analysis was performed on liver RNA from P28 mutant and control mice. Liver sections from mutant and control mice ranging from embryonic stages through 3-4 months of age were examined and liver function tests were performed on adult mice. Results: Mice lacking hepatocyte Dicer function were born alive at the expected frequency, and had grossly normal appearance and behavior. Despite the loss of mature miRNA, hepatic function was normal, as reflected by normal blood gludose, albumin, cholesterol, and bilirubin. However, mutant mice between 2-4 months of age exhibit progressive hepatocyte damage, elevated ALT/AST, with evidence of balanced proliferation and apoptosis in the lobule. Microarray analysis indicates large-scale changes in gene expression, with increased expression of many miRNA targets, as well as imprinted genes. Conclusions: Loss of miRNA processing in the liver at late gestation has a remarkably mild phenotype, suggesting that miRNAs do not play an essential role in hepatic physiology. However, miRNA deficiency results in hepatocyte apoptosis and balanced hepatocyte regeneration. Finally, microarray analysis of gene expression in mutant liver suggests a previously unrecognized role for Dicer in the repression of imprinted genes.
Hepatic function is preserved in the absence of mature microRNAs.
Age, Specimen partView Samples
The combination of peginterferon and ribavirin is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Our recent clinical study suggests that ribavirin augments the induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) in patients treated for HCV infection . In order to further characterize the mechanisms of action of ribavirin, we examined the effect of ribavirin treatment on ISG induction in cell culture. In addition, the effect of ribavirin on infectious HCV cell culture systems was also studied. Similar to interferon-alpha, ribavirin potently inhibits JFH-1 infection of Huh7.5.1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, which spans the physiological concentration of ribavirin in vivo. Microarray analysis and subsequent quantitative PCR assays demonstrated that ribavirin treatment resulted in the induction of a distinct set of ISGs. These ISGs, including IRF7 and IRF9 are known to play an important role in anti-HCV responses. When ribavirin is used in conjunction with interferon, induction of specific ISGs is synergistic when compared to either drug applied separately. Direct up-regulation of these antiviral genes by ribavirin is mediated by a novel mechanism different from those associated with interferon signaling and intracellular double stranded RNA sensing pathways such as RIG-I and MDA5. RNA interference studies excluded the activation of the Toll-like receptor and NF-KappaB pathways in the action of ribavirin. In conclusion, our study suggests that ribavirin, acting via a novel innate mechanism, potentiates the anti-HCV effect of interferon. Understanding the mechanism of action of ribavirin would be valuable in identifying novel antivirals.
Ribavirin potentiates interferon action by augmenting interferon-stimulated gene induction in hepatitis C virus cell culture models.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples