The goal of this study was to assess whether the presence of HLA-B*35 contributes to activation of ER stress/UPR and inflammation in lcSScPAH PBMC.
The HLA-B*35 allele modulates ER stress, inflammation and proliferation in PBMCs from Limited Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis patients.
Specimen partView Samples
Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been proposed as potential vectors of the interface between genes and environment. Here, we report that environmental conditions involving traumatic stress in early life, alter miRNA and piRNA composition in sperm of adult males in mice. Overall design: Examination of small RNA content of sperm from males, that experienced early chronic stress during their first two weeks of life versus small RNA content of sperm from control males.
Implication of sperm RNAs in transgenerational inheritance of the effects of early trauma in mice.
Sex, Disease, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
The needs for rapid and efficient microbial cell factory design and construction are possible through the enabling technology, metabolic engineering, which is now being facilitated by systems biology approaches. Metabolic engineering is often complimented by directed evolution, where selective pressure is applied to a partially genetically engineered strain to confer a desirable phenotype. The exact genetic modification or resulting genotype that leads to the improved phenotype is often not identified or understood to enable further metabolic engineering. In this work we establish proof-of-concept that whole genome high-throughput sequencing and annotation can be used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains S288c and CEN.PK113-7D. The yeast strain S288c was the first eukaryote sequenced, serving as the reference genome for the Saccharomyces Genome Database, while CEN.PK113-7D is a preferred laboratory strain for industrial biotechnology research. A total of 13,787 high-quality SNPs were detected between both strains (reference strain: S288c). Considering only metabolic genes (782 of 5,873 annotated genes), a total of 219 metabolism specific SNPs are distributed across 158 metabolic genes, with 85 of the SNPs being non-silent (e.g., encoding amino acid modifications). Amongst metabolic SNPs detected, there was pathway enrichment in the galactose uptake pathway (GAL1, GAL10) and ergosterol biosynthetic pathway (ERG8, ERG9). Physiological characterization confirmed a strong deficiency in galactose uptake and metabolism in S288c compared to CEN.PK113-7D, and similarly, ergosterol content in CEN.PK113-7D was significantly higher in both glucose and galactose supplemented cultivations compared to S288c. Furthermore, DNA microarray profiling of S288c and CEN.PK113-7D in both glucose and galactose batch cultures did not provide a clear hypothesis for major phenotypes observed, suggesting that genotype to phenotype correlations are manifested post-transcriptionally or post-translationally either through protein concentration and/or function. With an intensifying need for microbial cell factories that produce a wide array of target compounds, whole genome high-throughput sequencing and annotation for SNP detection can aid in better reducing and defining the metabolic landscape. This work demonstrates direct correlations between genotype and phenotype that provides clear and high-probability of success metabolic engineering targets. The genome sequence, annotation, and a SNP viewer of CEN.PK113-7D are deposited at www.sysbio.se/cenpk.
Whole genome sequencing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: from genotype to phenotype for improved metabolic engineering applications.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Acetaminophen (APAP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic that is considered to be relatively safe at recommended doses, is the leading cause of drug-induced liver failure in the United States. 3-Hydroxyacetanilide (AMAP), a regioisomer of acetaminophen is useful as a comparative tool for studying APAP-induced toxicity since it is non-toxic relative to APAP. TGF-alpha transgenic mouse hepatocytes were treated with both isomers to investigate mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in order to differentiate their toxicological outcomes. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade expression and activation were measured using microarray and Bioplex technologies, respectively. APAP treatment led to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, whereas AMAP treatment led to the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). The microarray data suggested APAP treatment may upregulate gene expression at multiple levels of the JNK cascade including a JNK-related scaffold protein. Expression data was related to phosphoprotein levels using the Bioplex system. APAP treatment led to a significant activation of JNK compared to its regioisomer. In contrast, microarray analysis of AMAP showed a slight upregulation of ERK gene activity. Furthermore, Bioplex data showed AMAP treatment led to significant ERK phosphorylation compared to APAP. Cell viability assays confirmed that APAP-induced activation of JNK was related to higher rates of cell death, whereas activation of ERK by AMAP may be cytoprotective.
Differential regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by acetaminophen and its nonhepatotoxic regioisomer 3'-hydroxyacetanilide in TAMH cells.
Cell lineView Samples
Critically ill preterm infants experience multiple stressors while hospitalized. Morphine is commonly prescribed to ameliorate their pain and stress. We hypothesized that neonatal stress will have a dose-dependent effect on hippocampal gene expression, and these effects will be altered by morphine treatment. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 5 treatment conditions between postnatal day 5 and 9: 1) Control, 2) mild stress + saline, 3) mild stress + morphine, 4) severe stress + saline and 5) severe stress + morphine. Hippocampal RNA was extracted and analyzed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Single gene analysis and gene set analysis were used to compare groups with validation by qPCR. Stress resulted in enrichment of genes sets related to fear response, oxygen carrying capacity and NMDA receptor synthesis. Morphine downregulated gene sets related to immune function. Stress plus morphine resulted in enrichment of mitochondrial electron transport gene sets, and down-regulation of gene sets related to brain development and growth. We conclude that neonatal stress alone influences hippocampal gene expression, morphine alters a subset of stress-related changes in gene expression and influences other gene sets. Stress plus morphine show interaction effects not present with either stimulus alone. These changes may alter neurodevelopment.
Effects of neonatal stress and morphine on murine hippocampal gene expression.
Sex, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
To find regulated genes during peak inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we have collected synovium from mouse Serum Transfer Arthtitis (STA) model at day 0 (Non Arthritic) and day 10 (Peak Inflammation).
Synovium-Derived MicroRNAs Regulate Bone Pathways in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Specimen part, TimeView Samples
Craniosynostosis is a disease defined by premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. The mechanistic pathology of isolated single-suture craniosynostosis is complex and while a number of genetic biomarkers and environmental predispositions have been identified, in many cases the causes remain controversial and inconclusive at best. After controlling for variables contributing to potential bias, FGF7, SFRP4, and VCAM1 emerged as potential genetic biomarkers for single-suture craniosynostosis due to their significantly large changes in gene expression compared to the control population. Furthermore, pathway analysis implicated focal adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction as differentially regulated gene networks when comparing all cases of single-suture synostosis and controls. Lastly, overall gene expression was found to be highly conserved between coronal and metopic cases, as evidenced by the fact that WNT2 and IGFBP2 were the only differentially regulated genes identified in a direct comparison. These results not only confirm the roles of previously reported craniosynostosis-related targets but also introduce novel genetic biomarkers and pathways that may play critical roles in its pathogenesis.
Differential expression of extracellular matrix-mediated pathways in single-suture craniosynostosis.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), the toxic metabolite of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos, causes developmental neurotoxicity in humans and rodents. CPO is hydrolyzed by paraoxonase-1 (PON1), with protection determined by PON1 levels and the human Q192R polymorphism. To examine how the Q192R polymorphism influences fetal toxicity associated with gestational CPO exposure, we measured biomarker inhibition and fetal-brain gene expression in wild-type (PON1+/+), PON1-knockout (PON1-/-), and tgHuPON1R192 and tgHuPON1Q192 transgenic mice. Pregnant mice exposed dermally to 0, 0.50, 0.75 or 0.85 mg/kg/d CPO from gestational days (GD) 6 through 17 were sacrificed on GD18. Biomarkers of CPO exposure inhibited in maternal tissues included brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), RBC acylpeptide hydrolase (APH), plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CES). Fetal plasma BChE was inhibited in PON1-/- and tgHuPON1Q192, but not PON1+/+ or tgHuPON1R192 mice. Fetal brain AChE and plasma CES were inhibited in PON1-/- mice, but not in other genotypes.
Repeated gestational exposure of mice to chlorpyrifos oxon is associated with paraoxonase 1 (PON1) modulated effects in maternal and fetal tissues.
Specimen partView Samples
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is still widely used despite statutory restrictions on home use. CPF is converted to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) by oxidative desulfuration in liver. Paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms affects the catalytic efficiency of the hydrolysis of OPs, including CPO. We used both wt (PON1+/+) and PON1 knockout (PON1-/-) mice and PON1-/- mice carrying transgenes encoding the human alloforms tgHuPON1Q192 and tgHuPON1R192 to gain insight into the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of CPO throughout postnatal development, and to ascertain the importance of the PON1Q192R polymorphism for protecting against developmental toxicity of CPO. Whole-genome microarrays were used to measure gene expression changes associated with chronic CPO exposure of developing (PND 4-21) PON1-/-, tgHuPON1Q192R transgenic and PON1+/+ mice.
Repeated developmental exposure of mice to chlorpyrifos oxon is associated with paraoxonase 1 (PON1)-modulated effects on cerebellar gene expression.
Specimen partView Samples