Fibroblast activation protein-a (FAP) identifies stromal cells of mesenchymal origin in human cancers and chronic inflammatory lesions. In mouse models of cancer, they have been shown to be immune suppressive, but studies of their occurrence and function in normal tissues have been limited. With a transgenic mouse line permitting the bioluminescent imaging of FAP(+) cells, we find that they reside in most tissues of the adult mouse. FAP(+) cells from three sites, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and pancreas, have highly similar transcriptomes, suggesting a shared lineage. FAP(+) cells of skeletal muscle are the major local source of follistatin, and in bone marrow they express Cxcl12 and KitL. Experimental ablation of these cells causes loss of muscle mass and a reduction of B-lymphopoiesis and erythropoiesis, revealing their essential functions in maintaining normal muscle mass and hematopoiesis, respectively. Remarkably, these cells are altered at these sites in transplantable and spontaneous mouse models of cancer-induced cachexia and anemia. Thus, the FAP(+) stromal cell may have roles in two adverse consequences of cancer: their acquisition by tumors may cause failure of immunosurveillance, and their alteration in normal tissues contributes to the paraneoplastic syndromes of cachexia and anemia. Overall design: FAP+ cells were sorted from two mesenchymal tissues, visceral adipose and skeletal muscle, and from an epithelial organ, the pancreas. These were compared to MEFs. Cells were isolated in duplicate experiments and these were analysed separately. These were compared to previously published publically available CD4+ T-cell subset data.
Depletion of stromal cells expressing fibroblast activation protein-α from skeletal muscle and bone marrow results in cachexia and anemia.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Whether epidermal factors play a primary role in immune-mediated skin diseases such as psoriasis is unknown. We now show that the pro-differentiation transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3), essential during epidermal development but dispensable in adult skin homeostasis, is required for barrier repair after adult epidermal injury. Consistent with activation of a GRHL3-regulated repair pathway in psoriasis, we find GRHL3 up-regulation in lesional skin where GRHL3 binds known epidermal differentiation gene targets. Furthermore, we show the functionality of this pathway in the Imiquimod mouse model of immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia where loss of Grhl3 exacerbates the epidermal damage response, conferring greater sensitivity to disease induction, delayed resolution of epidermal lesions, and resistance to anti-IL-22 therapy. ChIP-seq and gene expression profiling studies show that while GRHL3 regulates differentiation genes both in development and during repair from immune-mediated damage, it targets distinct sets of genes in the two processes. In particular, GRHL3 suppresses a number of alarmin and other pro-inflammatory genes after immune injury. This study identifies a GRHL3-regulated epidermal barrier repair pathway that suppresses disease initiation and helps resolve existing lesions in immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia.
A GRHL3-regulated repair pathway suppresses immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia.
Sex, TreatmentView Samples
Systemic inflammation like in sepsis is still lacking specific diagnostic markers and effective therapeutics. The first line of defense against intruding pathogens and endogenous damage signals is pattern recognition by e.g., complement and Toll-like receptors (TLR). Combined inhibition of a key complement component (C3 and C5) and TLR-co-receptor CD14 has been shown to attenuate certain systemic inflammatory responses. Using DNA microarray and gene annotation analyses, we aimed to decipher the effect of combined inhibition of C3 and CD14 on the transcriptional response to bacterial challenge in human whole blood. Importantly, combined inhibition reversed the transcriptional changes of 70% of the 2335 genes which significantly responded to heat-inactivated Escherichia coli by on average 80%. Single inhibition was less efficient (p<0.001) but revealed a suppressive effect of C3 on 21% of the responding genes which was partially counteracted by CD14. Furthermore, CD14 dependency of the Escherichia coli-induced response was increased in C5-deficient compared to C5-sufficient blood. The observed crucial distinct and synergistic roles for complement and CD14 on the transcriptional level correspond to their broad impact on the inflammatory response in human blood, and their combined inhibition may become inevitable in the early treatment of acute systemic inflammation.
CD14 and complement crosstalk and largely mediate the transcriptional response to Escherichia coli in human whole blood as revealed by DNA microarray.
Specimen partView Samples
The aim of the study is to identify AR target gens in LNCaP cells Overall design: 6 samples correponding to 2 times 3 replicates were used for the study
Assembly of methylated KDM1A and CHD1 drives androgen receptor-dependent transcription and translocation.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Full title: Genome-wide expression profiles of primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) infected with different adenovirus mutants.
Heterochromatin silencing of p53 target genes by a small viral protein.
Specimen partView Samples
The Mediator complex allows communication between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). CDK8, the kinase found in some variants of Mediator, has been characterized mostly as a transcriptional repressor. Recently, CDK8 was demonstrated to be a potent oncoprotein. Here we show that CDK8 is predominantly a positive regulator of gene expression within the serum response network, as it is required for expression of several members of the AP-1 and EGR family of oncogenic transcription factors (e.g. FOS, JUN, EGR1-3). Mechanistic studies demonstrate that CDK8 is not required for recruitment of RNAPII and promoter escape at these loci. Instead, CDK8 depletion leads to the appearance of slower elongation complexes carrying hypophosphorylated RNAPII. We show that CDK8-Mediator regulates precise steps in the assembly of a functional elongation complex, including the recruitment of P-TEFb and BRD4, but is dispensable for recruitment of SPT5 and FACT. Furthermore, CDK8-Mediator specifically interacts with P-TEFb. Thus, we uncovered a novel role for CDK8 in transcriptional regulation that may contribute to its oncogenic effects.
CDK8 is a positive regulator of transcriptional elongation within the serum response network.
Cell lineView Samples
A distinct highly invasive subpopulation was identified in breast cancer cell lines. The molecular characteristics of these cells was investigated, revealing a set of genes whose high expression confers the ability to invade.
ΔNp63α Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Motility through the Selective Activation of Components of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Program.
Cell lineView Samples
This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below.
Ibf1 and Ibf2 are novel CP190-interacting proteins required for insulator function.
Disease, Cell lineView Samples
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) sense and modulate inflammation and represent potential clinical treatment for immune disorders. However, many details of the bidirectional interaction between MSCs and the innate immune comaprtment are still unsolved. Here we describe an unconventional but functional interaction between pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages (M1M) and MSCs, with CD54 playing a central role. CD54 was upregulated and enriched specifically at the contact area between M1M and MSCs. Moreover, the specific interaction induced calcium signaling and increased the immunosuppressive capacities of MSCs dependent on CD54 mediation. Our data demonstrate that MSCs can detect an inflammatory microenvironment via a direct and physical interaction with innate immune cells. This finding opens new perspectives for MSC-based cell therapy.
CD54-Mediated Interaction with Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Increases the Immunosuppressive Function of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.
Specimen partView Samples
We used microarrays to investigate gene expression changes in human colon normal fibroblasts exposed to a bitter orange extract enriched in flavanones (and previously subjected to in vitro gastro-duodenal digestion) to determine possible modulatory beneficial effects induced by these plant-derived compounds on the colon cells.
A citrus extract containing flavanones represses plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression and regulates multiple inflammatory, tissue repair, and fibrosis genes in human colon fibroblasts.
Specimen part, Cell line, TreatmentView Samples