Saliva (oral fluids) is an emerging biofluid poised for clinical diseases detection. Although the rationale for oral diseases applications (e.g. oral cancer) is clear, the rationale and relationship between systemic diseases and saliva biomarkers are unknown. In this study, we used mouse models of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer and compared the transcriptome biomarker profiles of tumor-bearing mice to those of control mice. Microarray analysis showed that salivary transcriptomes were significantly altered in tumor-bearing mice vs. controls. Analysis of the transcriptomes in the mouse tumors, serum, salivary glands and saliva revealed that salivary biomarkers have multiple origins. Furthermore, we identified that the expression of two groups of significantly altered transcription factors Runx1, Mlxipl, Trim30 and Egr1, Tbx1, Nr1d1 in melanoma-bearing mice that can potentially be responsible for 82.6% of the up-regulated genes expression and 62.5% of the down-regulated gene expression in the mice saliva, respectively. We also confirmed that the ectopic production of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the melanoma tumor tissue as a tumor-released mediator that can induce expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 in the salivary gland. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that upon systemic disease development, a disease-specific change occurs in the salivary biomarker profile. Although the origins of the disease-specific salivary biomarkers are both systemic and local, stimulation of salivary gland by mediators released from remote tumors play an important role in regulating the salivary surrogate biomarker profiles.
Systemic disease-induced salivary biomarker profiles in mouse models of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer.
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The homeostasis of circulating B cell subsets in the peripheral blood of healthy adults is well regulated, but in disease it can be severely disturbed. Thus, a subgroup of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) presents with an extraordinary expansion of an unusual B cell population characterized by the low expression of CD21. Since these circulating atypical B cells in the blood of CVID patients could not be assigned to any certain B cell differentiation stage in the periphery, they were designated as CD21low B cells. Although, CD21low B cells are polyclonal and unmutated IgM+IgD+ B cells like naive B cells in the peripheral blood, they reveal several distinct phenotypic and functional features.
Circulating CD21low B cells in common variable immunodeficiency resemble tissue homing, innate-like B cells.
Specimen part, DiseaseView Samples