Although anemia is common in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We asked whether SBDS, which is mutated in most SDS patients, is critical for erythroid development. We found that SBDS expression is high early during erythroid differentiation. Inhibition of SBDS in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and early progenitors (HSC/Ps) and K562 cells led to slow cell expansion during erythroid differentiation. Induction of erythroid differentiation resulted in markedly accelerated apoptosis in the knockdown cells; however, proliferation was only mildly reduced. The percentage of cells entering differentiation was not reduced.
The ribosome-related protein, SBDS, is critical for normal erythropoiesis.
Specimen part, Disease, Disease stageView Samples
Tanning is a skin protection mechanism against UV radiation. Pigment production initiates hours after exposure, and the mechanism controlling this delay was unknown. Here we reveal a skin UV-protection timer, governed by damped oscillatory dynamics of the melanocyte master regulator, MITF, which after UV exposure, synchronizes regulatory programs, first cell survival and later pigmentation. Remarkably, the same amount of UV dosage resulted in higher pigmentation of human skin when given every-other day compared to daily exposure. Daily UV exposure appears to perturb MITF dynamics, thus re-ordering the survival and pigmentation programs. This demonstrates that the skin is more sensitive to frequency than quantity of UV exposure. Mathematical modeling identified a double negative regulatory loop involving HIF1a and microRNA-148a that regulates MITF dynamics. Our study suggests evolutionary leverage of the UV-protection timer, as it evolved to induce maximum protection with minimum damage for the reduction of skin cancer risk.
UV-Protection Timer Controls Linkage between Stress and Pigmentation Skin Protection Systems.
While the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activates a general stress response by increasing glucocorticoid (Gc) synthesis, biological stress resulting from infections triggers the inflammatory response through production of cytokines. The pituitary gland integrates some of these signals by responding to the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and LIF and to a negative Gc feedback loop. The present work used whole-genome approaches to define the LIF/STAT3 regulatory network and to delineate cross-talk between this pathway and Gc action. Genome-wide ChIP-chip identified 3 449 STAT3 binding sites, whereas 2 396 genes regulated by LIF and/or Gc were found by expression profiling. Surprisingly, LIF on its own changed expression of only 85 genes but the joint action of LIF and Gc potentiated the expression of more than a thousand genes. Accordingly, activation of both LIF and Gc pathways also potentiated STAT3 and GR recruitment to many STAT3 targets. Our analyses revealed an unexpected gene cluster that requires both stimuli for delayed activation: 83% of the genes in this cluster are involved in different cell defense mechanisms. Thus, stressors that trigger both general stress and inflammatory responses lead to activation of a stereotypic innate cellular defense response.
Regulatory network analyses reveal genome-wide potentiation of LIF signaling by glucocorticoids and define an innate cell defense response.
Specimen part, TimeView Samples
Pitx3 is a transcription factor that is expressed in all midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons during early development, but later becomes restricted in dopaminergic subsets of substantia nigra compacta (SNc) and of the ventral tegmental are (VTA) that are vulnerable to neurodegenerative stress (MPTP, 6-OHDA, rotenone, Parkinson's disease). Overall, in mice, Pitx3 is required for developmental survival of ventral SNc neurons and for postnatal survival of VTA neurons (after postnatal day 40). With the aim of determining the gene networks that distinguish Pitx3-vulnerable (Pitx3-positive) from Pitx3-resistant (Pitx3-negative) subsets of SNc and VTA, we performed a comparison at the transcriptome level between FAC-sorted mDA neurons of SNc and VTA that were obtained from wild-type and Pitx3-/- newborn mice. The latter mice have already lost the majority of their TH+Calb1- mDA neurons of ventral SNc (Pitx3-dependent), but their TH+Calb1+ neurons of dorsal SNc (Pitx3-independent), including all of VTA neurons (50% are Pitx3-dependent and 50% Pitx3-independent), are unaffected by Pitx3 deletion. At postnatal day 40, Pitx3-/- mice display a marked loss of dopaminergic subsets of VTA that normally co-express Pitx3 and Calb1 (Pitx3-dependent neurons of VTA).
Rgs6 is required for adult maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral substantia nigra.
Specimen partView Samples
Analysis of the transcriptional profiles of mRNA and microRNA in Rasless fibroblasts. 4-Hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OHT) treatment triggers removal of K-Ras expression in [H-Ras-/-;N-Ras-/-;K-Raslox/lox;RERTert/ert ] mouse fibroblasts (named K-Raslox) generating Rasless MEFs which are unable to proliferate, but recover proliferative ability after ectopic expression of constitutively active downstream kinases such as BRAF and MEK1.
Reversible, interrelated mRNA and miRNA expression patterns in the transcriptome of Rasless fibroblasts: functional and mechanistic implications.
Specimen part, Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
cJun is a transcription factor activated by phosphorylation by SAPK/JNK MAP kinase pathway that has been linked to atherosclerosis. Adenovirus mediated gene transfer of a dominant negative form of cJun in C57BL/6 mice increased greatly the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) mRNA and plasma apoE levels and induced dyslipidmia, characterized by increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL levels and accumulation of discoidal HDL particles. Unexpectedly, infection of ApoE-/- mice with adenovirus expressing dn-cJun reduced by 50% plasma cholesterol, suggesting that the dn-cJun affected other genes that control plamsa cholesterol. To determine the molecular pathways implicated in this process we performed whole genome expression profiling using total RNA from the liver of infected ApoE-/- mice.
A dominant negative form of the transcription factor c-Jun affects genes that have opposing effects on lipid homeostasis in mice.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Aortic valve regurgitation (AR) imposes a severe volume overload to the left ventricle (LV) which results in dilation, eccentric hypertrophy and eventually loss of function. Little is known about the impact of AR on LV gene expression. We therefore conducted a gene expression profiling study in the LV of male Wistar rats with chronic (9 months) and severe AR.
Multiple short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases are regulated in pathological cardiac hypertrophy.
To determine characterize human B cells that express IL-10 on a molecular level, we compared the global gene expression of primary CD19pos B cells secreting IL-10 or not, upon activation with anti-CD40, IL-4 and CpG for 2 days.
Autocrine IL-10 promotes human B-cell differentiation into IgM- or IgG-secreting plasmablasts.
Specimen partView Samples
Pitx1, critical regulator of a limited hindlimb-specific gene network, targets the limb development program common to both fore- and hindlimbs in order to implement hindlimb-specific limb morphology. Overall design: The gene regulatory networks governing forelimb vs. hindlimb development in mouse were investigated using expressing profiling of morphologically stage-matched e10.5 forelimbs and e11.0 hindlimbs, ChIPseq of chromatin marks, and ChIPseq of limb-specific transcription factors Pitx1 and Tbx5. The makeup of the Pitx1-directed components of the hindlimb gene network were investigated using expression profiling of Pitx1 null hindlimbs at two stages (e11.0 and e11.5).
Regulatory integration of Hox factor activity with T-box factors in limb development.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Deployment of a cell-specifying enhancer repertoire by the pioneer factor Pax7 The establishment and maintenance of cell identity depends on implementation of stable cell-specific chromatin landscapes. Pioneer transcription factors establish new cell fate competences by triggering chromatin remodeling during development. Here, we used pituitary cell specification to define the salient features of pioneer action. Comparison of purified pituitary cells of different lineages showed that chromatin accessibility differs at enhancers rather than promoters. The pioneer factor Pax7 specifies one pituitary lineage identity by opening a specific repertoire of enhancers that are distinct from the myogenic targets of Pax7. Pax7 binds its pioneer targets rapidly and days before chromatin remodeling and gene activation. Finally, enhancers opened by Pax7-dependent chromatin remodeling exhibit loss of DNA methylation and they acquire long term epigenetic memory. The present work identifies enhancer pioneering as a critical feature for cell fate specification and maintenance. Overall design: RNA extraction followed by high throughput sequencing (RNA-seq)
Pioneer factor Pax7 deploys a stable enhancer repertoire for specification of cell fate.
Specimen part, Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples