Several studies have shown that negative and positive miRNA-mRNA correlations are symmetrically distributed. While negative correlations are consistent with a faster degradation of miRNA targets, the presence of positive correlations suggests bidirectional interactions between the two classes of molecules. However, a comprehensive study of miRNA and mRNA correlations is lacking. A homogeneous map of miRNA and mRNA relationships was obtained by multidimensional scaling (MDS) applied to a single matrix including both heterologous (miRNA-mRNA) and homologous (miRNA-miRNA and mRNA-mRNA) correlations.
Integrated ordination of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles.
Specimen partView Samples
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have provided an evolutionary advantage in the diversification of transcript regulation and are thought to be involved in the establishment of extraembryonic tissues during development. However, silencing of these elements remains critical for the maintenance of genome stability. Here, we define a new chromatin state that is uniquely characterized by the combination of the histone variant H3.3 and H3K9me3, two chromatin ‘marks’ that have previously been considered to belong to fundamentally opposing chromatin states. H3.3/H3K9me3 heterochromatin is fundamentally distinct from ‘canonical’ H3K9me3 heterochromatin that has been under study for decades and this unique functional interplay of a histone variant and a repressive histone mark is crucial for silencing ERVs in ESCs. Our study solidifies the emerging notion that H3.3 is not a histone variant associated exclusively with “active” chromatin and further suggests that its incorporation at unique heterochromatic regions may be central to its function during development and the maintenance of genome stability. Overall design: RNA-seq analysis of three embryonic stem cell lines WT, H3.3 KO1, and H3.3 KO2)
Histone H3.3 is required for endogenous retroviral element silencing in embryonic stem cells.
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To elucidated through an unbiased manner which genes and pathways are differentially regulated during mouse colonic inflammation followed by a tissue regeneration phase. In particular, we took advantage of the widely used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced model of colitis. This model is one of the few characterized by a phase of damage followed by a phase of regeneration. Therefore, this model gave the possibility to identify also sets of genes essential in the regeneration phase, a key step towards the resolution of the inflammation. In short, mice were exposed to DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, then allowed to recover for the following 7 days. During this period, we collected colonic tissue samples every second day to then be analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Next, we performed a RNA-seq analysis from colonic samples throughout the experiment and computed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) taking the complete kinetics of expression into consideration for p-value estimation using EdgeR. Overall design: C57BL/6J female mice were treated with 2.5% DSS in order to induce colinic inflammation. 2-3 animals were sacrificed at different time points when the colonic tissue was collected.
Conserved transcriptomic profile between mouse and human colitis allows unsupervised patient stratification.
Sex, Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
In order to recover nuclei with two active X chromosomes (class I), we developed a reprogramming strategy by supplementing hESC media with the small molecules sodium butyrate, and 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep). In order to determine how B+D affects global gene expression, we performed microarray analysis in triplicate in the HSF-6 (8) C and HSF-6 (8) B+D treated cultures. We also evaluated HSF-6 (S9) B+D in triplicate and identified no statistically significant changes in gene expression in HSF-6 (S9) B+D compared to HSF-6 (8) B+D treated cultures. This suggests that global transcriptional differences are more strongly modulated by presence or absence of B+D and not the percentage of class I, II or III nuclei.
Derivation of new human embryonic stem cell lines reveals rapid epigenetic progression in vitro that can be prevented by chemical modification of chromatin.
Cell lineView Samples
Purpose: The goal of the study was to integrate verified signals from previous genetic association studies with gene expression and pathway analysis for discovery of new candidate genes and signalling networks, relevant for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method:RNA-seq based expression analysis of 377 genes from previously verified RA-associated loci was performed in blood cells from 5 newly diagnosed, non-treated RA patients, 7 patients with treated RA and 12 healthy controls. Differentially expressed genes sharing a similar expression pattern in treated and untreated RA sub-groups were selected for pathway analysis. A set of “connector” genes derived from pathway analysis was then tested for differential expression in the initial discovery cohort. Results: 11 qualifying genes were selected for pathway analysis and grouped into 2 evidence-based functional networks, containing 29 and 27 additional “connector” molecules. The expression of genes, corresponding to connector molecules was then tested in the initial RNA-seq data. 3 genes showed similar expression difference in both treated and non-treated RA patients and additional nine genes were differentially expressed in at least one patients' group compared to healthy controls. Conclusion: Integration of RNA-seq data with findings from association studies, and consequent pathway analysis implicate new candidate genes in the pathogenesis of RA. Overall design: Illumina RNA-seq was performed on RNA from pereferial blood mononuclear cells taken from 12 healthy individuals, 5 untreated RA patients, and 7 treated RA patients
Discovery of new candidate genes for rheumatoid arthritis through integration of genetic association data with expression pathway analysis.
Stress granules are small RNA-protein granules that modify the translational landscape during cellular stress to promote survival. The RhoGTPase RhoA is implicated in the formation of RNA stress granules. Our data demonstrate that the cytokinetic proteins ECT2 and AurkB are localized to stress granules in human astrocytoma cells. AurkB and its downstream target histone-3 are phosphorylated during arsenite-induced stress. Chemical (AZD1152-HQPA) and siRNA inhibition of AurkB results in fewer and smaller stress granules when analyzed utilizing high throughput fluorescent based cellomics assays. RNA immunoprecipitation with the known stress granule aggregates TIAR and G3BP1 was performed on astrocytoma cells and subsequent analysis revealed that astrocytoma stress granules harbour unique mRNAs for various cellular pathways including cellular migration, metabolism, translation and transcriptional regulation. Human astrocytoma cell stress granules contain mRNA that are known to be involved in glioma signaling and the mTOR pathway. These data provide evidence that RNA stress granules are a novel form of epigenetic regulation in astrocytoma cells, which may be targetable by chemical inhibitors and enhance astrocytoma susceptiblity to conventional therapy such as radiation and chemotherapy.
Epithelial Cell Transforming 2 and Aurora Kinase B Modulate Formation of Stress Granule-Containing Transcripts from Diverse Cellular Pathways in Astrocytoma Cells.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
Coupling immunity and development is essential to ensure survival despite changing internal conditions in the organism. The metamorphosis of the fruit fly represents a striking example of drastic and systemic physiological changes that need to be integrated with the innate immune system. However, the mechanisms that coordinate development and immune cell activity in the transition from larva to adult in Drosophila remain to elucidate. The steroid hormone ecdysone is known to act as a key coordinator of metamorphosis. This hormone activates a nuclear receptor, the Ecdysone Receptor (EcR), which acts as a heterodimer with its partner Ultraspiracle (USP). Together, they activate the transcription of primary response genes, which in turn activate the transcription of a battery of late response genes. We have revealed that regulation of macrophage-like cells (hemocytes) by the steroid hormone ecdysone is essential for an effective innate immune response over metamorphosis. We have shown that in response to ecdysone signalling, hemocytes rapidly up regulate actin dynamics, motility and phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses, and acquire the ability to chemotax to damaged epithelia. Most importantly, individuals lacking ecdysone-activated hemocytes are defective in bacterial phagocytosis and are fatally susceptible to infection by bacteria ingested at larval stages, despite the normal systemic production of antimicrobial peptides. This decrease in survival is comparable to the one observed in pupae lacking immune cells altogether, indicating that ecdysone-regulation is essential to hemocyte immune functions and survival after infection.
Steroid hormone signaling is essential to regulate innate immune cells and fight bacterial infection in Drosophila.
Specimen partView Samples
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) facilitate post-transcriptional control of eukaryotic gene expression at multiple levels. The RBP tristetraprolin (TTP/Zfp36) is a signal-induced phosphorylated anti-inflammatory protein guiding unstable mRNAs of pro-inflammatory proteins for degradation and preventing translation. Using iCLIP, we have identified numerous mRNA targets bound by wild-type TTP and by a non-MK2-phosphorylatable TTP mutant (TTP-AA) in 1h LPS-stimulated macrophages and correlated their interaction with TTP to changes at the level of mRNA abundance and translation in a transcriptome-wide manner. The close similarity of the transcriptome of TTP-deficient and TTP-expressing macrophages upon short LPS stimulation suggested an effective inactivation of TTP by MK2 under these conditions whereas retained RNA-binding capacity of TTP-AA to 3â€™UTRs caused profound changes in the transcriptome and translatome, altered NF-?B-activation and induced cell death. Increased TTP binding to the 3''UTR of feedback inhibitor mRNAs, such as Ier3, Dusp1 or Tnfaip3, in the absence of MK2-dependent TTP neutralization resulted in a strong reduction of their protein synthesis contributing to the deregulation of the NF-?B-signaling pathway. Taken together, our study uncovers a role for TTP in NF-?B-signaling and highlights the importance of fine-tuned TTP activity-regulation by MK2 in order to control feedback signaling during the inflammatory response. Overall design: Comparison of the transcriptomes of TTP knockout macrophages inducibly expressing GFP, GFP-TTP or GFP-TTP-AA (S52A, S178A) phosphorylation mutant during 1h LPS stimulation. 3 biological replicates per genotype and condition.
The RNA-binding protein TTP is a global post-transcriptional regulator of feedback control in inflammation.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples