Etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings open their cotyledons and halt rapid elongation of hypocotyl when exposed to light (de-etiolation). Major light responsive components in this process have been identified and signaling pathways revealed, yet how the organ-specific light responses are achieved remains unknown. Here we report that a developmental regulator TCP4 (TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PCF) participates in photomorphogenesis and facilitates light-induced cotyledon-opening. We demonstrate that TCP4-like transcriptional factors, which predominantly express in cotyledons of both light and dark seedlings, activate SAUR16 and SAUR50 in response to light. Light repressor PIF3 (or PIFs, phytochrome-interacting factors), which accumulates in etiolated seedlings and rapidly declines upon light exposure, inhibits TCP4 promoter-binding and prevents activation of SAUR16/50 in darkness. Our study reveals how an interplay between light responsive factors and developmental regulators leads to signal-dependent and tissue-specific regulation of gene expressions, which ultimately resulted in organ-specific light responses during de-etiolation. Overall design: Cotyledon mRNA profiles of 4-day-old dark grown Col, mTCP4#4 and mTCP4#10 seedlings were generated by deep sequencing.
The Transcription Factors TCP4 and PIF3 Antagonistically Regulate Organ-Specific Light Induction of <i>SAUR</i> Genes to Modulate Cotyledon Opening during De-Etiolation in Arabidopsis.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Drosophila males double transcription of their single X chromosome to equalize X-linked gene expression with females, which carry two X chromosomes. Increased transcription requires the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) complex. One of the primary functions of the MSL complex is thought to be enrichment of H4Ac16 on the male X chromosome, a modification linked to elevated transcription. The roX1 and roX2 RNAs are essential but redundant components of the MSL complex. Simultaneous removal of both roX RNAs reduces MSL X-localization and leads to ectopic binding of these proteins at autosomal sites and to the chromocenter. Some H4Ac16 accumulates at these ectopic sites in roX1- roX2- males, suggesting the possibility of increased expression. The global effect of roX mutations on gene expression was measured by microarray analysis. We found that expression of the X chromosome was decreased by 26% in roX1- roX2- male larvae, supporting the involvement of roX RNAs in the up-regulation of X-linked genes. This finding is broadly comparable to reports of reduced X chromosome expression following msl2 RNAi knockdown in S2 cells. In spite of strong MSL binding and H4Ac16 accumulation at autosomal sites in roX1- roX2- males, enhanced gene expression could not be detected at these sites by microarray analysis or reverse northern blotting. Thus, failure to compensate X-linked genes, rather than inappropriate up-regulation of autosomal genes at ectopic sites of MSL binding, appears to cause male lethality upon loss of roX RNAs.
roX RNAs are required for increased expression of X-linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster males.
ATH1 GeneChip was used for gene expression analysis of wild-type plants and dor mutant under drought treatment (both the wild-type and dor plants were grown under normal watering conditions for 24 days and then stressed by completely depriving of irrigation for 10 days). Two biological repeat experiments were conducted and the raw data was analyzed applying Affymetrix GCOS software.
F-box protein DOR functions as a novel inhibitory factor for abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure under drought stress in Arabidopsis,.
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The CDKN2A/B locus at 9p21.3 contains crucial tumor suppressors (P16, P14, and P15) and oncogenic lncRNA ANRIL genes. This locus is most frequently inactivated in cancer genomes by deletion and DNA methylation. However, the mechanisms coordinately regulating their expression level are far from clear. In the present study, a novel lncRNA, P14AS, was characterized in the antisense strand of the fragment near CDKN2A in human cell lines using CDKN2A-specific probe captured RNA-sequencing (RNACap-Seq). Overall design: RNAs were characterized in the antisense strand of the fragment near CDKN2A in human cell lines using CDKN2A-specific probe captured RNA-sequencing (RNACap-Seq).
Characterization of novel LncRNA P14AS as a protector of ANRIL through AUF1 binding in human cells.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
In the diploid genome, genes come in two copies, which can have different DNA sequence and where one is maternal and one is paternal. In a particular cell, a gene could potentially be expressed from both copies (biallelic expression) or only one (monoallelic). We performed RNA-Sequencing on individual cells, from zygote to the cells of the late blastocyst, and also individual cells from the adult liver. Using first generation crosses between two distantly related mouse strains, CAST/Ei and C57BL/6, we determined the expression separately from the maternal and paternal alleles. We found that half of the genes were expressed by only one allele, randomly so that some cells would express the paternal allele, some the maternal and a few cell both alleles. We also observed the spread of the progressive inactivation of the paternal X chromosome. Overall design: First generation mouse strain crosses were used to study monoallelic expression on the single cell level
Single-cell RNA-seq reveals dynamic, random monoallelic gene expression in mammalian cells.
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Mammals have evolved an XY sex chromosome system, resulting in dosage imbalance not only between sexes, but also between X-chromosome and autosome. Overall design: mRNA profiles of 9 pairs of human endometrial carcinoma and adjacent tissues were generated by Illumina 100-nucleotide paired-end sequencing
Identification of chimeric TSNAX-DISC1 resulting from intergenic splicing in endometrial carcinoma through high-throughput RNA sequencing.
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Pollen development from the microspore involves a series of coordinated cellular events, and the resultant mature pollen is specialized in function that it can quickly germinate and produces a polar-growth pollen tube derived from the vegetative cell to deliver two sperms for fertilization. Understanding the molecular program underlying pollen development and germination still remains a major challenge for plant biology. We used Affymetrix GeneChip Rice Genome Array to comprehensively analyzed the dynamic changes in the transcriptomes of rice pollen at five sequential developmental stages from microspores to germinated pollen. Among the 51,279 transcripts on the array, we found 25,062 pollen-preferential transcripts, among which 2,203 were development stage-enriched. The diversity of transcripts decreased greatly from microspores to mature and germinated pollen, whereas the number of stage-enriched transcripts displayed a U-type change, with the lowest at the bicellular pollen stage; and a transition of overrepresented stage-enriched transcript groups associated with different functional categories, which indicates a shift in gene expression program at the bicellular pollen stage. About 54% of the now-annotated rice F-box protein genes were expressed preferentially in pollen. The transcriptome profile of germinated pollen was significantly and positively correlated with that of mature pollen. Analysis of expression profiles and coexpressed features of the pollen-preferential transcripts related to cell cycle, transcription, the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system, phytohormone signalling, the kinase system and defense/stress response revealed five expression patterns, which are compatible with changes in major cellular events during pollen development and germination. A comparison of pollen transcriptomes between rice and Arabidopsis revealed that 56.6% of the rice pollen preferential genes had homologs in Arabidopsis genome, but 63.4% of these homologs were expressed, with a small proportion being expressed preferentially, in Arabidopsis pollen. Rice and Arabidopsis pollen had non-conservative transcription factors each. These results supply novel insights into the molecular program and key components of the regulatory network regulating pollen development and germination.
Genome-scale analysis and comparison of gene expression profiles in developing and germinated pollen in Oryza sativa.
To address the functional role of KDM6A in the regulation of Rhox genes, male and female mouse ES cells were transfected with a mixture of three small interfering RNA duplexes, each of which targets a different region of Kdm6a mRNA. We found that Kdm6a knockdown in mouse ES cells caused a decrease in expression of a subset of Rhox genes, Rhox6 and 9. Furthermore, Rhox6 and 9 expression was decreased in female ES cells but not male ES cells indicating that KDM6A regulates Rhox gene expression in a sexually dimorphic manner.
Female bias in Rhox6 and 9 regulation by the histone demethylase KDM6A.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
roX RNAs are involved in the chromosome-wide gene regulation that occurs during dosage compensation in Drosophila. Dosage compensation equalizes expression of X-linked and autosomal genes. Drosophila males increase transcription two-fold from their single X chromosome. This is mediated by the MSL complex, which is composed of the male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins and two noncoding roX RNAs, roX1 and roX2. Upon elimination of both roX transcripts, a global decrease of X-linked gene expression is observed in males. Expression of the genes on the entire 4th chromosome also decreased in the absence of both roX transcripts. roX1 RNA also presents in females in the early stages. To investigate the effect of loss of roX transcripts on gene expression in females, gene expression was analyzed by microarrays in roX1-roX2- female flies. To eliminate inconsistency caused by differences in genetic background, expression of roX1-roX2- females with females of virtually identical genetic background but carrying the [hsp83-roX1+] transgene were compared. Expression of any chromosome did not change in roX1-roX2- females. It was concluded that roX RNAs only effect in males .
Coordinated regulation of heterochromatic genes in Drosophila melanogaster males.