Epigenetic environment of histone H3.3 on promoters revealed by integration of imaging and genome-scale chromatin and methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation information.
Chromatin environment of histone variant H3.3 revealed by quantitative imaging and genome-scale chromatin and DNA immunoprecipitation.
Specimen partView Samples
How genomic information is selectively utilized to direct spatial and temporal gene expression patterns during differentiation remains to be elucidated but it is clear that regulated changes in higher-order genomic architecture plays a fundamental role. Specifically, long range interactions within and between chromosomes and the position of chromosome territories in the nucleus are controlled by TADs and LADs respectively, but the relationship between these genomic organizers remains poorly understood Overall design: We analyzed the large-scale spatial reorganization of chromatin by generating matched Hi-C and nuclear lamin-chromatin contact datasets throughout a dual adipose/neuronal induction of human primary adipose stem cells. We have mapped Hi-C (TADs) and lamin-associated domains (LADs) in multiple steps during adipose stem cell differentiation to characterize the spatial and temporal link between genomic architecture and gene expression. We identify a new level of 4D genomic organization involving a long-range clustering of individual TADs or TAD pairs into TAD cliques. LADs appear to regulate their formation. (ASCs). We unveil a lineage-specific dynamic assembly and disassembly of repressive cliques of linearly non-contiguous TADs, and a time course-coupled relationship between TAD clique size and lamina association. Our findings reveal a new level of developmental genome organization and provide an overview of large-scale changes in the 4D nucleome during lineage-specific differentiation.
Long-range interactions between topologically associating domains shape the four-dimensional genome during differentiation.
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Purpose: Mating induces a multitude of changes in female behavior, physiology and gene expression. Interactions between female and male genotype lead to variation in post-mating phenotypes and reproductive success. So far, few female molecules responsible for these interactions have been identified. Methods: We used Drosophila melanogaster from five geographically dispersed populations to investigate such female x male genotypic interactions at the female transcriptomic and phenotypic levels. Methods: Females from each line were singly-mated to males from the same five lines, for a total of 25 combinations. To assess whether female x male genotypic interactions affect the female post-mating transcriptome, next-generation RNA sequencing was performed on virgin and mated females at 5 to 6 hours post-mating. Results: Seventy-seven genes showed strong variation in mating-induced expression changes in a female x male genotype-dependent manner. These genes were enriched for immune response and odorant-binding functions, and for expression exclusively in the head. Conclusions: The transcriptional variation found in specific functional classes of genes might be a read-out of female x male compatibility at a molecular level. Understanding the roles these genes play in the female post-mating response will be crucial to better understand the evolution of post-mating responses and related conflicts between the sexes. Overall design: Five Drosophila melanogaster inbred lines were used. These lines are derived from five geographically dispersed populations (Global Diversity Lines Beijing 04; Ithaca 16; Netherlands 01; Tasmania 01 and Zimbabwe 184 â€“ the latter line was collected in Africa, but turned out to be a recent migrant) (Grenier et al., 2015). Virgin females from each line were singly-mated to virgin males from each of the five inbred lines, similar to a 5x5 full factorial design. For RNAseq, mated females were flash frozen 5 to 6h after the start of mating. Age-matched virgin females were flash-frozen in parallel. Three independent biological replicates were generated for each of the 25 mating combinations and for virgin females of each genotype (90 samples total). Flies from each replicate were collected from separate bottles, and matings for all three replicates were set up simultaneously. RNA was extracted from five to ten pooled females per replicate.
Roles of Female and Male Genotype in Post-Mating Responses in Drosophila melanogaster.
The cellular origin of Ewing tumor (ET), a tumor of bone or soft tissues characterized by specific fusions between EWS and ETS genes, is highly debated. Through gene expression analysis comparing ETs with a variety of normal tissues, we show that the profiles of different EWS-FLI1-silenced Ewing cell lines converge toward that of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Moreover, upon EWS-FLI1 silencing, two different Ewing cell lines can differentiate along the adipogenic lineage when incubated in appropriate differentiation cocktails. In addition, Ewing cells can also differentiate along the osteogenic lineage upon long-term inhibition of EWS-FLI1. These in silico and experimental data strongly suggest that the inhibition of EWS-FLI1 may allow Ewing cells to recover the phenotype of their MSC progenitor.
Mesenchymal stem cell features of Ewing tumors.
Specimen partView Samples
Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the relative expresson levels of mRNA transcripts in wild type platelets Methods: Total RNA was extracted and purified from purified platelets from BALB/c male mice (3 independent samples). Platelet purification was performed as described in Josefsson EC et al, Journal of Experimental Medicine (2011) 208:2017-31. Total RNA (100 ng) was used to generate sequencing libraries for whole transcriptome analysis following Illuminaâ€™s TruSeq RNA v2 sample preparation protocol. Completed libraries were sequenced on HiSeq 2000 with TruSeq SBS Kit v3- HS reagents (Illumina) as 100 bp paired-end reads at the Australian Genome Research Facility (AGRF), Melbourne. Reads were aligned to the mouse reference genome mm10 and counts for known genes were obtained using the Rsubread package (version 1.18.0) (Liao et al. 2013; Liao et al. 2014). Overall design: Total RNA was extracted and purified from purified platelets from BALB/c male mice (3 independent samples per population).
Loss of PUMA (BBC3) does not prevent thrombocytopenia caused by the loss of BCL-XL (BCL2L1).
Age, Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Background: Cancer cachexia is a life-threatening metabolic syndrome that causes significant loss of skeletal muscle mass and significantly increases mortality in cancer patients. Currently, there is an urgent need for better understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of this disease, so that effective therapies can be developed. Almost all pre-clinical studies evaluating skeletal muscle’s response to cancer have focused on one or two pre-clinical models, and almost all have focused specifically on limb muscles. In the current study, we reveal key differences in the histology and transcriptomic signatures of a limb muscle and a respiratory muscle in orthotopic pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice. Methods: To create the four cohorts of PDX mice evaluated in this study, tumors resected from four pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients were portioned and attached to the pancreas of immunodeficient NSG mice. Results: Body weight, muscle mass, and fat mass were significantly decreased in each PDX line. Histological assessment of cryosections taken from the tibialis anterior (TA) and diaphragm (DIA) revealed differential effects of tumor-burden on their morphology. Subsequent genome-wide microarray analysis on TA and DIA revealed key differences between their transcriptomes in response to cancer as well. Indeed, upregulated genes in the diaphragm were enriched for extracellular matrix (ECM) protein-encoding genes and genes related to the inflammatory response, and downregulated genes were enriched for mitochondria related protein-encoding genes. Conversely, the TA showed upregulation of canonical atrophy-associated pathways such as ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation and apoptosis and enrichment of downregulated genes encoding ECM proteins. Conclusions: These data suggest that distinct biological processes account for wasting in different skeletal muscles in response to the same tumor burden. Further investigation into these differences will be critical for the future development of effective clinical strategies to counter cancer cachexia.
Distinct cachexia profiles in response to human pancreatic tumours in mouse limb and respiratory muscle.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
We demonstrate that Prnp dosage is critical for the maintenance of neuronal homeostasis since both its absence and, more relevantly, its overexpression induce higher sensitivity to kainate (KA) damage. These data correlate with electrophysiological results in freely behaving mutant mice showing an imbalance in activity-dependent synaptic processes, as determined from input/output curves, paired-pulse facilitation, and LTP studies. Gene expression profiling showed that 129 genes involved in canonical pathways such as Ubiquitination or Neurotransmission among others were co-regulated in knockout and PrPc overexpressing mice. RT-qPCR analysis of neurotransmission-related genes confirmed GABA-A and AMPA-Kainate receptor subunit transcriptional co-regulation in both Prnp -/- and Tg20 mice. Our results demonstrate that PrPc is necessary for the proper homeostatic functioning of hippocampal circuits, because of its interactions with GABAA and AMPA-Kainate receptors.
Regulation of GABA(A) and glutamate receptor expression, synaptic facilitation and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus of prion mutant mice.
Serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) are increased in the serum of people with pancreatic cancer and associated with the loss of body weight and low muscle mass. We have identified that systemic (intraperitoneal) injection of IL-8 into mice induces significant skeletal muscle atrophy. Transcriptional profiling of muscle harvested from these same mice identified the genes and biological processes associated with this IL-8 induced atrophy including gene clusters related to chromatin modification, muscle cell differentiation, and ubiquitin ligase complex.
IL-8 Released from Human Pancreatic Cancer and Tumor-Associated Stromal Cells Signals through a CXCR2-ERK1/2 Axis to Induce Muscle Atrophy.
Characterization of different astrocytes soruces was done using RNAseq including samples from human primary adult brain, astrocytoma, and hiPSC derived astrocytes including neural stem cell origin Overall design: Full RNAseq (>200nt) of biological triplicates isolated with Illumina TrueSeq Stranded mRNA LT Sample Prep Kit and sequenced using Illumina NextSeq 500 sequencer
Human iPS-Derived Astroglia from a Stable Neural Precursor State Show Improved Functionality Compared with Conventional Astrocytic Models.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples