Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that impair function of this cAMP-regulated Cl- channel. In the small intestine, loss of CFTR function creates a dehydrated, acidic luminal environment which is believed to cause an accumulation of mucus, a phenotype characteristic of CF. CF mice have an innate immune response and impaired intestinal transit as well. We investigated whether lubiprostone, which activates the CLC2 Cl- channel, would improve the CF intestinal phenotype.
Lubiprostone ameliorates the cystic fibrosis mouse intestinal phenotype.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Total RNA was prepared using TRIzol reagent from the pancreata of eight week old male mice. The genotypes were Control: gastrin+/-, CFTR+/+; and CF: gastrin+/-, CFTR-/-. All mice were on 95% black6, 5% 129Sv background. Mice were fed Peptamen from age 10 days to prevent intestinal obstruction.
Acidic duodenal pH alters gene expression in the cystic fibrosis mouse pancreas.
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Hydrogen peroxide is known to promote skin keratinocyte migration, although the mechanism of action is unclear. In an attempt to identify signaling pathways regulated by hydrogen peroxide in the skin, 3 day post fertilized (dpf) zebrafish larvae (nacre strain) were treated with 3mM hydrogen peroxide for 2 hours and subjected to RNA-seq analyses. Pools of about 1000 embryos for each of three biological replicates were derived from 5 independent mating pairs and raised to larval stages until 3 dpf. All larvae were subsequently homogenized in Trizol and total RNA was extracted using a chloroform extraction protocol treated with DNAse. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was subsequently purified from total RNA using biotin-tagged poly dT oligonucleotides and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, followed by quality control using an Agilent Technologies 2100 Bioanalyzer (values >7 were used for sequencing). The poly(A)-tailed mRNA samples were fragmented and double-stranded cDNA generated by random priming for deep sequencing studies. Overall design: 6 samples total were analyzed. 3 untreated, and 3 hydrogen peroxide treated (3mM, 2hr)
Comparative transcriptomic profiling of hydrogen peroxide signaling networks in zebrafish and human keratinocytes: Implications toward conservation, migration and wound healing.
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The expansion, trafficking and functional effectiveness of adoptively transferred CD8+ T-cells play a critical role in mediating effective anti-tumor immunity. However, the mechanisms which program the highly proliferative and functional state of CD8+ T-cells are not completely understood. We hypothesized that IL-12, a cytokine commonly induced by TLR activation, could enhance T-cell priming by altering responsiveness to antigen and cytokines. Priming of tumor specific CD8+ T-cells in the presence of IL-12 induced the acquisition of a 'polyfunctional' effector response and increased the generation of memory cells. Moreover, IL-12 priming also promoted high levels of the IL-2 receptor alpha-chain (CD25) and robust IL-2 mediated activation of STAT5. This sensitivity to IL-2 translated into enhanced in vivo proliferation of adoptively transferred CD8+ T-cells. Furthermore, real-time, in vivo imaging of T-cell trafficking confirmed the ability of IL-12 priming to drive in vivo proliferation. IL-12 priming enhanced the anti-tumor function of adoptively transferred cells by reducing established subcutaneous tumor burden, and significantly increasing survival in an established intracranial tumor model. Finally, IL-12 priming of human PBMCs generates tumor specific T-cells phenotypically and functionally similar to IL-12 primed Pmel-1 T-cells. These results highlight IL-12 as an important mediator of CD8+ T-cell effector function and anti-tumor immunity.
Enhanced sensitivity to IL-2 signaling regulates the clinical responsiveness of IL-12-primed CD8(+) T cells in a melanoma model.
Sex, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Wild-type and exo mutant (SALK_098602) were grown in parallel in three independent experiments in a greenhouse. 3 x 2 profiles were established.
The extracellular EXO protein mediates cell expansion in Arabidopsis leaves.
Age, Specimen part, TimeView Samples
Accumulating data indicate translation plays a role in cancer biology, particularly its rate limiting stage of initiation. Despite this evolving recognition, the function and importance of specific translation initiation factors is unresolved. The eukaryotic translation initiation complex eIF4F consists of eIF4E and eIF4G at a 1:1 ratio. Although it is expected that they display interdependent functions, several publications suggest independent mechanisms. This study is the first to directly assess the relative contribution of eIF4F components to the expressed cellular proteome, transcription factors, microRNAs, and phenotype in a malignancy known for extensive protein synthesis- multiple myeloma (MM). Previously, we have shown that eIF4E/eIF4GI attenuation (siRNA/ Avastin) deleteriously affected MM cells' fate and reduced levels of eIF4E/eIF4GI established targets. Here, we demonstrated that eIF4E/eIF4GI indeed have individual influences on cell proteome. We used an objective, high throughput assay of mRNA microarrays to examine the significance of eIF4E/eIF4GI silencing to several cellular facets such as transcription factors, microRNAs and phenotype. We showed different imprints for eIF4E and eIF4GI in all assayed aspects. These results promote our understanding of the relative contribution and importance of eIF4E and eIF4GI to the malignant phenotype and shed light on their function in eIF4F translation initiation complex.
eIF4E and eIF4GI have distinct and differential imprints on multiple myeloma's proteome and signaling.
Specimen part, Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
The transition in developmental control from maternal to zygotic gene products marks a critical step in early embryogenesis. Here, we use GRO-seq analysis to map the genome-wide RNA polymerase distribution during the Drosophila maternal to zygotic transition. This analysis unambiguously identifies the zygotic transcriptome, and provides insight into its mechanisms of regulation. Overall design: Two replicates of GRO-seq at each time point.
Extensive polymerase pausing during Drosophila axis patterning enables high-level and pliable transcription.
Specimen part, Cell line, Subject, TimeView Samples
Human neonates and older adults frequently exhibit a reduced capacity to control microbial infections. A variety of mechanisms involving both the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to these deficiencies. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) as an accurate and quantitative method for examining mRNA levels provides an opportunity to compare transcriptional responses to a stimulus at a global scale in neonates, adults, and older adults. An examination of ex vivo monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection (with cord blood monocytes representing neonatal monocytes) revealed extensive similarities between all three age groups, with only a small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant differences. Using transcription factor motif analyses and RNA-seq data sets from a variety of mouse mutants, the most significant neonatal deficiencies corresponded to genes that require interferon response factor-3 or type 1 interferon signaling for their activation. In older adults, the most striking difference was broad, low-level activation of inflammatory genes prior to stimulation, consistent with prior evidence of a chronic inflammatory state in older adults. These results demonstrate the value of quantitative RNA-seq analyses and the feasibility of cross-species comparisons between well-defined mouse networks and human data sets. Overall design: RNA-seq of primary cells from three independent donors in three different age-groups across 3 time-points stimulated with either LPS or Listeria monocytogenes.
Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.
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One of the most important features of tumor microenvironment, imposing adverse effect on patient prognosis, is low oxygen tension. There are two types of hypoxia that may occur within tumor mass: chronic and cycling. Preliminary studies point at cycling hypoxia as being more relevant in induction of aggressive phenotype of tumor cells and radioresistance though little is known about the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon. Analysis of gene expression profile of human prostate (PC-3), ovarian (SK-OV-3) and melanoma (WM793B) cancer cells to expermental cycling (interchanging conditions of 1% and 21% oxygen) or chronic (1% oxygen) for 72 hours. Gene expression profiles were analyzed using U133 Plus 2.0 Array (Affymetrix) oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that globally gene expression profiles induced by the two types of hypoxia are similar and they strongly depend on the cell type.However, cycling hypoxia changes expression of lower number of genes in comparison to chronic one ( 3767 vs. 5954 probesets (p<0.001)) and to lower extent (lower fold changes). Analysis of hypoxia-regulated gene lists obtained using Random Variance Model t-test identified 253 probe sets (FC>2, p<0.001) common to all three cell lines, though no universal (changed throughout all analyzed cell lines) genes specifically influanced only by cycling hypoxia was selected. On the other hand, we identified such genes within particular one or two cell lines. Among them those related with EGF pathway seemed to be overrepresented (i.e. EPHA2, AREG, and HBEGF) and together with PLAU and IL-8 were mostly validated by Q-PCR.
Global gene expression profiling in three tumor cell lines subjected to experimental cycling and chronic hypoxia.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples