PTBP1 and PTBP2 control alternative splicing programs during neuronal development, but the cellular functions of most PTBP1/2-regulated isoforms remain unknown. We show that PTBP1 guides developmental gene expression by regulating the transcription factor Pbx1. We identify exons that are differentially spliced when mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiate into neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons, and transition from PTBP1 to PTBP2 expression. We define those exons controlled by PTBP1 in ESCs and NPCs by RNA-seq analysis after PTBP1 depletion and PTBP1 crosslinking-immunoprecipitation. We find that PTBP1 represses Pbx1 exon 7 and the expression of its neuronal isoform Pbx1a in ESC. Using CRISPR-Cas9 to delete regulatory elements for exon 7, we induce Pbx1a expression in ESCs, finding that this activates transcription of specific neuronal genes including known Pbx1 targets. Thus PTBP1 controls the activity of Pbx1 and suppresses its neuronal transcriptional program prior to differentiation. Overall design: 46C mESCs were differentiated in mNPCs. The mNPCs were treated with 10 nM control, Ptbp1, Ptbp2, or Ptbp1 and Ptbp2 siRNAs for 48 hours. The knockdowns were performed using 2 independent sets of siRNAs. Poly-A RNA was isolated for RNA-sequencing and splicing analyses.
The splicing regulator PTBP1 controls the activity of the transcription factor Pbx1 during neuronal differentiation.
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Human genetic studies have identified the neuronal RNA binding protein, Rbfox1, as a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorders. While Rbfox1 functions as a splicing regulator in the nucleus, it is also alternatively spliced to produce cytoplasmic isoforms. To investigate cytoplasmic Rbfox1, we knocked down Rbfox proteins in mouse neurons and rescued with cytoplasmic or nuclear Rbfox1. Transcriptome profiling showed that nuclear Rbfox1 rescued splicing changes induced by knockdown, whereas cytoplasmic Rbfox1 rescued changes in mRNA levels. iCLIP-seq of subcellular fractions revealed that in nascent RNA Rbfox1 bound predominantly to introns, while cytoplasmic Rbox1 bound to 3'' UTRs. Cytoplasmic Rbfox1 binding increased target mRNA stability and translation, and overlapped significantly with miRNA binding sites. Cytoplasmic Rbfox1 target mRNAs were enriched in genes involved in cortical development and autism. Our results uncover a new Rbfox1 regulatory network and highlight the importance of cytoplasmic RNA metabolism to cortical development and disease. In this data set, we included the data from RNA-seq experiments. Overall design: We performed RNA-seq to profile gene expression and splicing changes. The expression levels of Rbfox1 and Rbfox3 in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons were reduced by siRNAs. The reduction of Rbfox1 and 3 was rescued by expression of cytoplasmic or nuclear Rbfox1 splice isoform. The gene expression and splicing profiles were compared between different treatments. Eight samples were analyzed.
Cytoplasmic Rbfox1 Regulates the Expression of Synaptic and Autism-Related Genes.
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hnRNP M and Rbfox proteins are subunits of the Large Assembly of Splicing Regulators (LASR). The purpose of this study is to investigate how these two splicing factors affect each others'' role in regulating splice site choices in pre-mRNA. hnRNP M is knocked down by RNAi in Flp-In T-REx 293 cells (Invitrogen), whereas Rbfox1 is expressed inducibly under tetracycline control from construct integrated into the genome at the FRT site. Using this system, splicing and expression profiles of cells expressing and/or lacking these proteins are compared on a whole genome level by RNA-seq technology. Overall design: The experiment was performed in Flp-In T-REx 293, Rbfox2 knockout cells (clone 7), in which the Rbfox2 ORF was disrupted in the first constitutive exon (exon 3), thus these cells do not produce endogenous Rbfox protein. In addition to this, cells expressing Flag-tagged Rbfox1 under tetracycline control from a pcDNA5/FRT/TO construct inserted into the FRT site were generated. hnRNP M was knocked down to 10% of the normal levels by transient expression of two RNA hairpins targeting separate 3'' UTR regions. A non-targeting hairpin served as control. Four separate cell populations: not expressing Rbfox with normal levels fo hnRNP M; expressing Rbfox1 with normal hnRNP M levels; not expressing Rbfox, hnRNP M expression reduced by 90%; expressing Rbfox1, hnRNP M reduced by 90% were each grown independently in triplicates. Total RNA was collected from these cells and further treated with DNase I to avoid DNA contamination. Illumina TruSeq stranded mRNA kit was used to generate strand-specific libraries. These libraries were subjected to 50bp paired-end sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000 platform). In parallel, a fraction of each cell population was lysed in RIPA buffer for protein analysis.
Rbfox Proteins Regulate Splicing as Part of a Large Multiprotein Complex LASR.
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Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) encodes a transcription factor involved in cancer and growth. We study the role of PLAG1 in preimplantation embryos using STRT RNA-seq of single embryos from wild type and knockout mothers (both mated with wild type studs). The lack of maternal Plag1 led to delayed mouse 2-cell stage embryo development, compensatory expression of Plag1 from the paternal allele, and dysregulation of 1,089 genes. Half of these genes displayed a pattern of delayed activation and play roles in ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. These mouse genes further showed a significant overlap with human EGA genes with similar ontology, and an enrichment of the PLAG1 de novo motif. We conclude that Plag1 affects EGA through retrotransposons influencing ribosomes and protein synthesis, a mechanism that might also explain its roles in cancer and growth Overall design: Single wild type and maternal Plag1 knockout embryos at MII, 2-cell and 8-cell stage development in 14-16 biologicla replicas per developmental stage and genotype.
Pleomorphic Adenoma Gene 1 Is Needed For Timely Zygotic Genome Activation and Early Embryo Development.
Although early developmental processes involve cell fate decisions that define the body axes and establish progenitor cell pools, development does not cease once cells are specified. Instead, most cells undergo specific maturation events where changes in the cell transcriptome ensure that the proper gene products are expressed to carry out unique physiological functions. Pancreatic acinar cells mature post-natally to handle an extensive protein synthetic load, establsih organized apical-basal polarity for zymogen granule trafficking, and assemble gap-junctions to perimt efficient cell-cell communication. Despite significant progress in defining transcriptional networks that control initial acinar cell specification and differentiation decisions, little is know regarding the role of transcription factors in the specification and maintenance of maturation events. One candidate maturation effector is MIST1, a secretory cell-restricted transcription factor that has been implicated in controlling regulated exocytosis events in a number of cell types. Embryonic knock-out of MIST1 generates acinar cells that fail to establish an apical-basal organization, fail to properly localize zymogen granule and fail to communicate intra-cellularly, making the exocrine organ highly suceptible to pancreatic diseases.
Induced Mist1 expression promotes remodeling of mouse pancreatic acinar cells.
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Purpose: Eliciting effective anti-tumor immune responses in patients who fail checkpoint inhibitor therapy is a critical challenge in cancer immunotherapy, and in such patients, tumor-associated myeloid cells and macrophages (TAMs) are promising therapeutic targets. We demonstrate in an autochthonous, poorly immunogenic mouse model of melanoma that combination therapy with an agonistic anti-CD40 mAb and CSF1R inhibitor potently suppressed tumor growth. Microwell assays to measure multiplex protein secretion by single cells identified that untreated tumors have distinct TAM subpopulations secreting MMP9 or co-secreting CCL17/22, characteristic of an M2-like state. Combination therapy reduced the frequency of these subsets, while simultaneously inducing a separate polyfunctional inflammatory TAM subset co-secreting TNF?, IL-6, and IL-12. Tumor suppression by this combined therapy was partially dependent on T cells, TNF? and IFN?. Together, this study demonstrates the potential for targeting TAMs to convert a “cold” into an “inflamed” tumor microenvironment capable of eliciting protective T cell responses. Methods: Total RNA was purified with the use of QIAzol and RNeasy Mini kit (QIAGEN), in which an on-column DNase treatment was included. Purified RNA was submitted to the Yale Center for Genomic Analysis where it was subjected to mRNA isolation and library preparation. Non-strand specific libraries were generated from 50ng total RNA using the SMARTer Ultra Low Input RNA for Illumina Sequencing kit. Libraries were pooled, six samples per lane, and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 (75-bp paired end reads), and aligned using STAR to the GRCm38 (mm10) reference genome. A count-based differential expression protocol was adapted for this analysis(Anders et al., 2013); mappable data were counted using HTSeq, and imported into R for differential expression analysis using the DESeq2.To find differentially regulated sets of genes for signature generation, a 1.5-Log2 fold-change difference between samples and p-adjusted (Holm-Sidak) = 0.01 was used. Results: To begin to understand how these treatments modulated T cells to control tumor growth, and to possibly illuminate additional biomarkers of response, we examined the transcriptomes of CD11b+ Ly6G- cells treated with CD40 or CSF1Ri, alone or in combination, relative to control, using high throughput RNA-sequencing. Principal components analysis (PCA) on the genome-wide dataset demonstrated that treating with CD40 and CSF1Ri individually caused largely non-overlapping changes in transcription, as indicated by their movement along orthogonal principal components (PC) relative to the control. Importantly, combination therapy was visualized as a systems-level combination of each individual treatment in PC space. We then examined the mRNAs most altered by either treatment alone or in combination relative to Controls (Log2FC>1.5, p<.01) by unsupervised hierarchical clustering. Five major gene patterns emerged from the clustering of genes. Cluster #1 comprises genes that are upregulated by CD40 and CSF1Ri+CD40 treatment but are mostly unaffected by CSF1Ri, suggesting that CD40 is the primary driver of this cluster in the combination treatment. Notable genes in this cluster include Tnfa, Ifng??Il12b and Cxcl9; interestingly, for Tnfa and Il12b, CSF1Ri+CD40 appears to have a synergistic effect on expression. In contrast to Cluster #1, Cluster #5 contains genes substantially downregulated by CSF1Ri and CSF1Ri+CD40 treatments, but are largely unaffected by CD40, suggesting that CSF1Ri is the driver of this cluster in the combination treatment. Cluster #5 genes include Cd36 and Fabp4, suggesting alterations in lipid homeostasis in the TAMs after treatment. Cluster #2 includes genes that are modestly upregulated by CD40 and CSF1Ri individually, leading to a stronger upregulation when combined. Finally, Clusters #3 and #4 include, for the most part, genes that are differentially affected by CD40 versus CSF1Ri and for which the combination treatment yields an intermediate response. In summary, these data show that CSF1Ri and CD40 agonism elicit predominantly distinct changes in gene expression in the CD11b+ cells, indicating they target different biological processes in myeloid cells. The net result of the changes in myeloid gene expression from the combination of CSF1Ri+CD40 treatment reveal additive effects by the individual treatments, but also synergy in the expression of several pro-inflammatory genes (e.g., Tnfa, Ifng, Il6 and Il12b). We further examined our dataset with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Although CSF1Ri and CD40 treatments did not closely match any immunological signatures in the immunological database of MSigDb, combined CSF1Ri+CD40 had a strikingly similar signature to myeloid cells exposed to a variety of inflammatory stimulants, most closely reflected by BMDMs treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This motivated us to look specifically at categories of NF-?B target genes that are significantly affected by LPS treatment, including transcription factors, cytokines and chemokines. Indeed, most of these NF-?B target genes associated with inflammation were strongly upregulated by CSF1Ri+CD40 treatment. Finally, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified TNFR1 and TNFR2 signaling and Acute phase response signaling among the top genetic signatures produced by the CSF1Ri+CD40 treatment combination, matching what we observed with GSEA. Thus, gene expression analysis not only revealed several biomarkers of response that may be relevant for assessing therapeutic activity in ongoing clinical trials using these drugs, but illuminated lead biological factors that may cause tumor regression. Conclusions: myeloid-targeted immunotherapies anti-CD40+CSF1R inhibition synergistically induce a pro-inflammatory microenviroment Overall design: mRNA profiles of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in mice were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina.
Myeloid-targeted immunotherapies act in synergy to induce inflammation and antitumor immunity.
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miR-222 overexpression leads to promotion of proliferation and hypertrophy and inhibition of apoptosis in in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs).
miR-222 is necessary for exercise-induced cardiac growth and protects against pathological cardiac remodeling.
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Expression profiling was performed using uncultured melanocytes and melanoma cell from various mouse models of BrafV600E induced melanocytic proliferation
mTORC1 activation blocks BrafV600E-induced growth arrest but is insufficient for melanoma formation.
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The goals were to investigate differences in gene expression between wild type and Gpr120 knockout mouse interscapular brown adipose tissue
The GPR120 agonist TUG-891 promotes metabolic health by stimulating mitochondrial respiration in brown fat.
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The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men. Vancomycin, but not amoxicillin, decreased bacterial diversity and reduced Firmicutes involved in short-chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, concomitant with altered plasma and/or fecal metabolite concentrations. Adipose tissue gene expression of oxidative pathways was upregulated by antibiotics, whereas immune-related pathways were downregulated by vancomycin. Antibiotics did not affect tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, energy/substrate metabolism, postprandial hormones and metabolites, systemic inflammation, gut permeability, and adipocyte size. Importantly, energy harvest, adipocyte size, and whole-body insulin sensitivity were not altered at 8-week follow-up, despite a still considerably altered microbial composition, indicating that interference with adult microbiota by 7-day antibiotic treatment has no clinically relevant impact on metabolic health in obese humans.
Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.
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