Here we analyse single cell transcriptome profiles of EZH2-deficient human embroynic stem cells Overall design: Single cell transcriptome (mRNA-Seq) from Ezh2-/- (Null) and EZH2+/+ (WT) human ESC
Deletion of the Polycomb-Group Protein EZH2 Leads to Compromised Self-Renewal and Differentiation Defects in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.
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Hair follicle formation depends on reciprocal epidermal-dermal interactions and occurs during skin development, but not in adult life. This suggests that the properties of dermal fibroblasts change during postnatal development. To examine this, we used a PdgfraEGFP mouse line to isolate GFP-positive fibroblasts from neonatal skin, adult telogen and anagen skin and adult skin in which ectopic hair follicles had been induced (EF skin) by transgenic epidermal activation of beta-catenin. We also isolated epidermal cells from each mouse. The gene expression profile of EF epidermis was most similar to that of anagen epidermis, consistent with activation of beta-catenin signalling. In contrast, adult dermis with ectopic hair follicles more closely resembled neonatal dermis than adult telogen or anagen dermis. In particular, genes associated with mitosis were upregulated and extracellular matrix-associated genes were downregulated in neonatal and EF fibroblasts. We confirmed that sustained epidermal beta-catenin activation stimulated fibroblasts to proliferate to reach the high cell density of neonatal skin. In addition, the extracellular matrix was comprehensively remodelled, with mature collagen being replaced by collagen subtypes normally present only in developing skin. The changes in proliferation and extracellular matrix composition originated from a specific subpopulation of fibroblasts located beneath the sebaceous gland. Our results show that adult dermis is an unexpectedly plastic tissue that can be reprogrammed to acquire the molecular, cellular and structural characteristics of neonatal dermis in response to cues from the overlying epidermis.
Reprogramming adult dermis to a neonatal state through epidermal activation of β-catenin.
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We report gene expression data for the human cell lines HL-60 and PLB-985, which serve as models for human neutrophils. We measured gene expression using RNA-Seq for these cell lines both prior and after differentiation into a neutrophil-like state using two differentiation protocols (treatment with DMSO or treatment with DMSO and replacement of serum with Nutridoma). Overall design: HL-60 and PLB-985 cells grown in culture were processed for RNA-Seq both before and after differentiation for six days in media supplemented with 1.3% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The cell lines were also analyzed after differentiation for six days in media with 1.3% DMSO, reduced serum (0.5% FBS), and Nutridoma-CS (2%). PLB-985 cells were also analyzed at intermediate time points of 2 days and 4 days with the Nutridoma protocol.
A map of gene expression in neutrophil-like cell lines.
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A human gut-on-a-chip microdevice was used to coculture multiple commensal microbes in contact with living human intestinal epithelial cells for more than a week in vitro and to analyze how gut microbiome, inflammatory cells, and peristalsis-associated mechanical deformations independently contribute to intestinal bacterial overgrowth and inflammation. This in vitro model replicated results from past animal and human studies, including demonstration that probiotic and antibiotic therapies can suppress villus injury induced by pathogenic bacteria. By ceasing peristalsis-like motions while maintaining luminal flow, lack of epithelial deformation was shown to trigger bacterial overgrowth similar to that observed in patients with ileus and inflammatory bowel disease. Analysis of intestinal inflammation on-chip revealed that immune cells and lipopolysaccharide endotoxin together stimulate epithelial cells to produce four proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-) that are necessary and sufficient to induce villus injury and compromise intestinal barrier function. Thus, this human gut-on-a-chip can be used to analyze contributions of microbiome to intestinal pathophysiology and dissect disease mechanisms in a controlled manner that is not possible using existing in vitro systems or animal models.
Contributions of microbiome and mechanical deformation to intestinal bacterial overgrowth and inflammation in a human gut-on-a-chip.
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Sequencing data related to our manuscript "Systematic identification of general and context-specific regulators of phagocytosis using magnetic genome-wide CRISPR screens" Overall design: Two groups of U937 cells were sequenced before and after PMA differentiation. One group carried Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 and a safe-harbor control sgRNA, and the second group was a clonally expanded U937 line expressing GFP. Each group was separated into eight separate wells at d0, and half of the wells were treated with 50 nM PMA. At day 3, undifferentiated cells were split to prevent overcrowding, and differentiated cells were trypsinized and replated. Cells were allowed to recover for 2 additional days before cells were lysed for RNA harvest and sequencing.
Identification of phagocytosis regulators using magnetic genome-wide CRISPR screens.
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Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) serve as sentinels in mucosal tissues, sensing release of soluble inflammatory mediators, rapidly communicating danger via cytokine secretion, and functioning as guardians of tissue homeostasis. Although ILCs have been studied extensively in model organisms, little is known about these first responders in humans, especially their lineage and functional kinships to cytokine-secreting T helper cell (Th) counterparts. Here, we report gene regulatory circuitries for four human ILCTh counterparts derived from mucosal environments, revealing that each ILC subset diverges as a distinct lineage from Th and circulating natural killer cells, but shares circuitry devoted to functional polarization with their Th counterparts. Super-enhancers demarcate cohorts of cell identity genes in each lineage, uncovering new modes of regulation for signature cytokines, novel molecules that likely impart important functions to ILCs, and potential mechanisms for autoimmune disease SNP associations within ILCTh subsets.
Distinct Gene Regulatory Pathways for Human Innate versus Adaptive Lymphoid Cells.
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Anopheles gambiae,the primary African malarial mosquito, exhibits numerous behaviors that are under diel and circadian control, including locomotor activity, swarming, mating, host seeking, eclosion, egg laying and sugar feeding. However, little has been performed to elucidate the molecular basis for these daily rhythms. To study how gene expression is globally regulated by diel and circadian mechanisms, we have undertaken a DNA microarray analysis ofA. gambiaehead and bodies under 12:12 light:dark cycle (LD) and constant dark (DD, free-running) conditions. Zeitgeber Time (ZT) with ZT12 defined as time of lights OFF under the light:dark cycle, and ZT0 defined as end of the dawn transition. Circadian Time (CT) with CT0 defined as subjective dawn, inferred from ZT0 of the previous light:dark cycle.
Genome-wide profiling of diel and circadian gene expression in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.
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Genome stability relies on epigenetic mechanisms that enforce repression of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Current evidence suggests that distinct chromatin-based mechanisms repress ERVs in cells of embryonic origin (histone methylation-dominant) versus more differentiated cells (DNA methylation-dominant). However, the latter aspect of this model has not been tested. Remarkably, and in contrast to the prevailing model, we find that repressive histone methylation catalyzed by the enzyme SETDB1 is critical for suppression of specific ERV families and exogenous retroviruses in committed B-lineage cells from adult mice. The profile of ERV activation in SETDB1-deficient B cells is distinct from that observed in corresponding embryonic tissues, despite the loss of repressive chromatin modifications at all ERVs. We provide evidence that, upon loss of SETDB1, ERVs are activated in a lineage-specific manner depending on the set of transcription factors available to target proviral regulatory elements. These findings have important implications for genome stability in somatic cells, as well as the interface between epigenetic repression and viral latency.
The histone methyltransferase SETDB1 represses endogenous and exogenous retroviruses in B lymphocytes.
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