Screening small molecules and drugs for activity to modulate alternative splicing, we found that amiloride, distinct from four other intracellular pH-affecting analogues, could normalize the splicing of BCL-X, HIPK3 and RON/MISTR1 transcripts in human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh-7 cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, our proteomic analyses of amiloride-treated cells detected hypo-phosphorylation of splicing factor SF2/ASF and also decreased levels of SRp20 and two un-identified SR proteins. We further observed decreased phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and PP1, while increased phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, suggesting that amiloride treatment down-regulated kinases and up-regulated phosphatases in the signal pathways known to affect the splicing factor protein phosphorylation. The amiloride effects of splicing factor protein hypo-phosphorylation andnormalizedoncogenic RNA splicing were both abrogated by pre-treatment with a PP1 inhibitor. We then performed global exon array analysis of Huh-7 cells treated with amiloride for 24 hours. Using gene array chips (Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array of >518000 exons of 42974 genes) for exon array analysis (set parameters of correlation coefficient 0.7, splicing index -1.585 , and log2 ratio -1.585), we found that amiloride influenced the splicing patterns of 551 genes involving at least 584 exons, which included 495 known protein-coding genes involving 526 exons, many of which play key roles in functional networks of ion transport, extracellular matrix, cytoskeletons and genome maintenance. Cellular functional analyses revealed subsequent invasion and migration defects, cell cycle disruption, cytokinesis impairment, and lethal DNA degradation in amiloride-treated Huh-7 cells. This study thus provides mechanistic underpinnings for exploiting small molecule modulation of abnormal RNA splicing for cancer therapeutics.
Small molecule amiloride modulates oncogenic RNA alternative splicing to devitalize human cancer cells.
Cell lineView Samples
Alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing the protein variety of a limited number of genes. Studies have shown that aberrant regulations of the alternative splicing of apoptotic gene transcripts may contribute to the development of cancer. In this study, we isolated 4ß-Hydroxywithanolide E (4bHWE) from the traditional herb Physalis peruviana, and analyzed its biological effects in cancer cells. The results demonstrated that 4bHWE modulates the alternative splicing of apoptotic genes (e.g., HIPK3, SMAC/DIABLO, and SURVIVIN), changes the expression level of splicing factors (e.g., hnRNP C1/C2, ASF/SF2, SRp20, and SRp55), and induces histone tail posttranslational modifications (e.g., H3K27me1, H3K27me2, H3K36me3, and H3K79me1). Pretreatment with okadaic acid to inhibit protein phosphatase-1 could partly relieve the effects of 4bHWE on the alternative splicing of HIPK3 and SMAC/DIABLO transcripts, as well as on the dephosphorylation of ASF/SF2. Genome-wide detection of alternative splicing further indicated that several other apoptosis-related genes are also regulated by 4bHWE, including APAF1, CARP-1, and RIPK1. Moreover, we extended our study to apoptosis-associated molecules, detecting an increasing level of CASPASE-3 activity and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase in 4bHWE-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that the treatment of tumor-bearing mice with 4bHWE resulted in a marked decrease of tumor size and weight. Taken together, this study is the first to show that 4bHWE affects alternative splicing through the modulations of splicing factors, providing a novel view of the antitumor mechanism of 4bHWE. Overall design: Examination of the global genes with altered alternative splicing in 4bHWE-treated Huh-7 cells.
4β-Hydroxywithanolide E Modulates Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Huh-7 Cells.
Specimen part, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
We demonstrate that GLUT4 up-regulation significantly increased cell migration and invasion in lower magligance head and neck cancer cell lines in vitro.
Glucose transporter 4 promotes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma metastasis through the TRIM24-DDX58 axis.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
The orthotopic transplantation of human OEC-M1 cells in immune-compromised mice was established to feasibly study tumorigenesis and lymph node metastasis of OSCC.
Insulin-like growth factor-independent insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 promotes cell migration and lymph node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by requirement of integrin β1.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
To exmaine the PTHLH stimulated genes in Ca9-22 cells, we preformed the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array with empty vector or PTHLH expression vector. The raw data were normalized by GeneSpring GX software and up-load with raw values.
Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone is a Poor Prognosis Marker of Head and Neck Cancer and Promotes Cell Growth via RUNX2 Regulation.
Cell lineView Samples
The early-onset breast cancer patients (age 40) often display higher incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis, and poorer five-year survival than the late-onset patients. To identify the genes and molecules associated with poor prognosis of early-onset breast cancer, we examined gene expression profiles from paired breast normal/ tumor tissues, and coupled with Gene Ontology and public data base analysis. Our data showed that the expression of GAS7b gene was lower in the early-onset breast cancer patients as compared to the elder patients. We found that GAS7 was associated with CYFIP1 and WAVE2 complex to suppress breast cancer metastasis via blocking CYFIP1 and Rac1 protein interaction, actin polymerization, and 1-integrin/FAK/Src signaling. We further demonstrated that p53 directly regulated GAS7 gene expression, which was inversely correlated with p53 mutations in breast cancer specimens. Our study uncover a novel regulatory mechanism of p53 in early-onset breast cancer progression through GAS7-CYFIP1 mediated signaling pathways.
Wild-type p53 upregulates an early onset breast cancer-associated gene GAS7 to suppress metastasis via GAS7-CYFIP1-mediated signaling pathway.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
To examine the transcription targets of RUNX2 in OSCC cells, we preformed the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array with ectopic RUNX2 or empty vectors in Ca9-22 cells.
Dysregulation of RUNX2/Activin-A Axis upon miR-376c Downregulation Promotes Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
We have developed a protocol to generate hematopoietic and cardiac derivatives in vitro by Mesp1 induction in ES cells. The goal of this study is to analyze the heterogeneity of Mesp1+ mesoderm by single-cell RNA-seq Overall design: 48 Mesp1-induced single cells were captured using the Fluidigm C1 microfluidic system. RNA extraction, RT and cDNA amplication were then performed according to the manufacturer's manual.
Heterogeneity of Mesp1+ mesoderm revealed by single-cell RNA-seq.
Specimen part, Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
We report the expression profiles of MCF10A cells encapsulated in hydrogels of varying stiffness and composition. Cells were encapsulated for 7 days in either 1.) soft alginate and reconstituted basement membrane (rBM), 2.) stiff alginate and rBM, 3,) soft col-1 and rBM, or 4.) stiff col-1. We find global gene expression changes in response to enhanced ECM stiffness, independent of expression changes in response to col-1 exposure. These results provide a comprehensive study of the gene expression changes associated with increased ECM stiffness in addition to the gene expression changes associated with increased col-1 concentration in combination with, and independent of, ECM stiffness. Overall design: Expression profiling of MCF10A cells in four hydrogel conditions were sequenced in duplicate via Illumina HiSeq.
YAP-independent mechanotransduction drives breast cancer progression.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Studies in model organisms suggest that aged cells can be functionally rejuvenated, but whether this concept applies to human skin is unclear. Here we apply deep sequencing of RNA 3'' ends ("3-seq") to discover the gene expression program associated with human photoaging and intrinsic skin aging (collectively termed "skin aging") and the impact of broadband light (BBL) treatment. We find that skin aging was associated with the significantly altered expression level of 2,265 coding and noncoding RNAs, of which 1,293 became "rejuvenated" after BBL treatment, i.e. more similar in expression level of youthful skin. Rejuvenated genes (RGs) included several known key regulators of organismal longevity and their proximal long non-coding RNAs. Skin aging is not associated with systematic changes in 3'' end mRNA processing. Hence, BBL treatment can restore the gene expression pattern of photoaged and intrinsically aged human skin to resemble young skin. In addition, our data reveals a novel set of targets that may lead to new insights into the human skin aging process. Overall design: Examination of broadband light treated and untreated human skin transcriptomes of 5 women aged 50 years or more. They were compared to the skin transcriptomes of 5 young women aged 30 years or less.
Rejuvenation of gene expression pattern of aged human skin by broadband light treatment: a pilot study.
Sex, Specimen part, Treatment, SubjectView Samples