The transition between pregnancy and lactation is a major physiological change that dairy cows must contend with. Complex systemic and local processes involving gluconeogenesis, energy balance, utilisation of body reserves, insulin resistance and involution of the uterus can have an effect on animal health and farm profitability. Here we used an established Holstein cow model of fertility that displayed genetic and phenotypic divergence in calving interval, a trait used to define reproductive performance using a national breeding index in Ireland. Cows had similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but either very good genetic merit for fertility (‘Fert+’; n = 8) or very poor genetic merit for fertility (‘Fert-‘; n = 8). We investigated three distinct time-points, late pregnancy, early lactation and mid lactation (-18, 1 and 147 days on average with day 0 being birth), using RNA sequencing from both liver and muscle tissue biopsies and conducting a differential expression (DE) analysis. We found 807 and 815 unique genes to be DE in at least one time-point in liver and muscle respectively, of which 79% and 83% were only found in a single time-point; 40 and 41 genes were found DE at every time-point indicating possibly systemic or chronic dysregulation. Functional annotation resulted in evidence for two major physiological processes: immune and inflammation, and metabolic, lipid and carbohydrate-binding. These processes indicate areas of previous interest as well as specific systems that appear differentially regulated, and point towards interesting avenues of further research in a broad and complex field. Overall design: 96 samples total; 8 Fert+ (''high fertility''), 8 Fert- (''low fertility''); no controls; Fert+, Fert- differential gene expression at three timepoints in two tissues
Transcriptomics of liver and muscle in Holstein cows genetically divergent for fertility highlight differences in nutrient partitioning and inflammation processes.
Specimen part, Subject, TimeView Samples
Genomic imprinting results in the preferential expression of the paternal, or maternal allele of certain genes. We have performed a genome-wide characterization of imprinting in the mouse embryonic and adult brain using F1 hybrid mice generated from reciprocal crosses of CASTEiJ and C57BL/6J mice. We also uncovered genes associated with sex specific parental effects in the adult mouse brain. Our study identified preferential selection of the maternally inherited X chromosome in glutamatergic neurons of the female cortex. Overall design: Examination of allele specific expression in the brains of reciprocal crosses of F1 hybrid mice from CASTEiJ and C57BL/6J crosses. Processed data files (GenomicAligned, SNP_calls, TranscriptomeAligned, fRNAdbAligned) and README file linked below as supplementary files.
Sex-specific parent-of-origin allelic expression in the mouse brain.
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Computational single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) methods have been successfully applied to experiments representing a single condition, technology, or species to discover and define cellular phenotypes. However, identifying subpopulations of cells that are present across multiple datasets remains challenging. Here, we introduce an analytical strategy for integrating scRNA-seq datasets based on common sources of variation, enabling the identification of shared populations across datasets and downstream comparative analysis. Implemented in our R toolkit Seurat (http://satijalab.org/seurat/), we use our approach to align scRNA-seq datasets of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) under resting and stimulated conditions, hematopoietic progenitors sequenced using two profiling technologies, and pancreatic cell 'atlases' generated from human and mouse islets. In each case, we learn distinct or transitional cell states jointly across datasets, while boosting statistical power through integrated analysis. Our approach facilitates general comparisons of scRNA-seq datasets, potentially deepening our understanding of how distinct cell states respond to perturbation, disease, and evolution. Overall design: Human PBMCs were profiled using ddSeq and bulk RNA-seq. The ddSeq experiment was performed on unperturbed PBMCs. The bulk RNA-seq experiments were performed on both unperturbed and IFN-beta stimulated PBMC-derived populations (cDCs and pDCs) with three technical replicates.
Integrating single-cell transcriptomic data across different conditions, technologies, and species.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor is a protein of unclear function in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Using TSPO gene-deleted mice, we recently demonstrated that the dogma surrounding mammalian TSPO as a cholesterol transporter essential for steroid hormone production is highly inaccurate. TSPO global knockout mice are apparently healthy and do not have any deficits in steroid hormone production. We present whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing data comparing adrenal gene expression between Tspo floxed (Tspofl/fl) and Tspo knockout (Tspo-/-) mice.
Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor/translocator protein global knock-out mice are viable with no effects on steroid hormone biosynthesis.
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Cystatin A (gene: CSTA), is up-regulated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and dysplastic vs normal human bronchial epithelium. In the context that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a small airway epithelium (SAE) disorder, is independently associated with NSCLC (especially squamous cell carcinoma, SCC), but only occurs in a subset of smokers, we hypothesized that genetic variation, smoking and COPD modulate CSTA gene expression levels in SAE, with further up-regulation in SCC. Gene expression was assessed by microarray in SAE of 178 individuals [healthy nonsmokers (n=60), healthy smokers (n=82), and COPD smokers (n=36)], with corresponding large airway epithelium (LAE) data in a subset (n=52). Blood DNA was genotyped by SNP microarray. Twelve SNPs upstream of the CSTA gene were all significantly associated with CSTA SAE gene expression (p<0.04 to 5 x 10-4). CSTA gene expression levels in SAE were higher in COPD smokers (28.4 2.0) than healthy smokers (19.9 1.4, p<10-3), who in turn had higher levels than nonsmokers (16.1 1.1, p<0.04). CSTA LAE gene expression was also smoking-responsive (p<10-3). Using comparable publicly available NSCLC expression data, CSTA was up-regulated in SCC vs LAE (p<10-2) and down-regulated in adenocarcinoma vs SAE (p<10-7). All phenotypes were associated with significantly different proportional gene expression of CSTA to cathepsins. The data demonstrate that regulation of CSTA expression in human airway epithelium is influenced by genetic variability, smoking, and COPD, and is further up-regulated in SCC, all of which should be taken into account when considering the role of CSTA in NSCLC pathogenesis.
Modulation of cystatin A expression in human airway epithelium related to genotype, smoking, COPD, and lung cancer.
Despite overwhelming data that cigarette smoking causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), only a minority of chronic smokers are affected, strongly suggesting that genetic factors modify susceptibility to this disease. We hypothesized that there are individual variations in the response to cigarette smoking, with variability among smokers in expression levels of protective / susceptibility genes. Affymetrix arrays and TaqMan PCR were used to assess the variability of gene expression in the small airway epithelium obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy of 18 normal non-smokers, 18 normal smokers and 18 smokers with COPD.
Variability in small airway epithelial gene expression among normal smokers.
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LbetaT2 cells exposed to different number and concentration of GnRH pulses over 4 hours during in vitro perfusion culture
Pulse sensitivity of the luteinizing hormone beta promoter is determined by a negative feedback loop Involving early growth response-1 and Ngfi-A binding protein 1 and 2.
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MiR-31 is one of the most highly overexpressed miRNAs in psoriasis skin; however, its biological role in the disease has not been studied. Here we show that miR-31 is markedly overexpressed in psoriasis keratinocytes. To study the biological role of miR-31 in keratinocytes, we transfected miR-31 hairpin inhibitor (anti-miR-31) into primary human keratinocytes to inhibit endogenous miR-31. We performed a global transcriptome analysis of keratinocytes upon suppression of endogenous miR-31 using Affymetrix arrays.
MicroRNA-31 is overexpressed in psoriasis and modulates inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in keratinocytes via targeting serine/threonine kinase 40.
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Bptf, a component of NURF chromatin-remodeling complex, is essential for maintaining the pool size and function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed that Bptf loss caused down-regulation of HSC-specific gene-expression programs, which included master transcription factors (such as Meis1, Pbx1, and Lmo2) known to be required for HSC maintenance and self-renewal. Bptf directly bound to the promoter of 'stemness' TF genes, potentiating their transcription and DNA accessibility. Overall design: To dissect the gene-regulatory role of Bptf in HSPCs, we sorted out phenotypically identical LSK cells from the bone marrow of Bptf conditional KO mice and littermate controls, followed by ACAT-seq and RNA-seq studies. We also performed H3K4me3 ChIP-seq using HPC7 cells, a murine HSPC-mimicking cell line.
The Chromatin Remodeler BPTF Activates a Stemness Gene-Expression Program Essential for the Maintenance of Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
To determine the effects of age and lipoic acid supplementation on hepatic gene expression, we fed young (3 months) and old (24 months) male Fischer 344 rats a diet with or without 0.2% (w/w) R--lipoic acid (LA) for two weeks. Total RNA isolated from liver tissue was analyzed by Affymetrix microarray to examine changes in transcriptional profile. Results showed an increase in pro-inflammatory gene expression in the aging liver, with increased immune cell function and tissue remodeling genes, representing 45% of the age-related transcriptome changes. Increased inflammation was corroborated by increases in soluble ICAM1 levels with age. There were also observed age-related increases in transcription of genes related to lipid and cholesterol synthesis including Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (Acacb) and Fatty acid Synthase (Fasn). Supplementation of old animals with LA did not reverse this necro-inflammatory phenotype, yet limited age-associated hepatic dyslipidemia. Dietary LA further affected a small but concerted number of hepatic genes regardless of age. These included declines in lipid and bile synthesis genes. Decline in lipid synthesis genes was further corroborated by a decrease in Fasn and Acc protein levels. Intriguingly, LA also altered the expression of genes governing circadian rhythm, most notably Bmal1, Npas2, and Per2, which changed in a coordinated manner with respect to their rhythmic transcription. Thus, advanced age is associated with a necro-inflammatory phenotype and increased lipid synthesis, while chronic LA supplementation influences hepatic genes associated with energy metabolism and circadian rhythm regardless of age.
R-α-lipoic acid does not reverse hepatic inflammation of aging, but lowers lipid anabolism, while accentuating circadian rhythm transcript profiles.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples