It It is known that functional maturation of the small intestine occurring during the weaning period is facilitated by glucocorticoids (such as hydrocortisone, HC) including the increased expression of digestive hydrolases. However, the molecular mechanism(s) are not well understood, particularly in human gut. Here we report a microarray analysis of HC- induced changes in gene expression in H4 (a human fetal small intestinal epithelial cell line well-characterized in numerous previous studies). This study identified a large number of HC-affected genes, some involved in metabolism, cell cycle regulation, cell polarity, tight junction formation, and interactions with extracellular matrices. These effects could play an important role in HC-mediated enterocyte maturation in vivo and in vitro.
Hydrocortisone induces changes in gene expression and differentiation in immature human enterocytes.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a class of fatty acids found in beef and dairy products, has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of cancer model systems. Based on previously well-documented anti-tumor activity of CLA in rodent models of breast cancer, a pilot study was initiated to examine the effect of dietary CLA in a well-established transgenic model of breast cancer. Western blots were performed for the detection of AKT, c-Src, ERK1/2, and Cdc24. CLA significantly increased tumor burden (p<0.1) independent of an increase in oncogenic signaling. Mammary gland whole mounts indicated a loss of mammary adipose and extensive epithelial expansion in CLA-treated animals. Microarray analysis indicated a significant reduction in cytoskeletal related genes with at least a two-fold decrease in five out of six CLA-fed animals compared to untreated controls. Reduction of Cdc42, a key regulator of cell adhesion and cytoskeletal arrangements, was confirmed at the protein level by western blot (p<0.01). These findings suggest that dietary CLA may advance the malignant phenotype by promoting a loss of cell polarity and adhesion in the mammary gland epithelium. This action may have serious clinical implications for a subset high-risk population and warrants further investigation.
Pilot study on the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on tumorigenesis and gene expression in PyMT transgenic mice.
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In our studies we were searching for the new factors engaged in mitochondrial nucleic acids metabolism under stress conditions in humans. Quantitative proteomic approach revealed C6orf203 protein as a potential new factor engaged in response to perturbed mitochondrial gene expression. We showed that C6orf203 is a mitochondrial RNA binding protein which is able to rescue diminished mitochondrial transcription in stress conditions. Overall design: The dataset corresponds to RNAseq studies and comprises experiment performed in triplicate. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of C6orf203 silencing on mitochondrial transcriptome. To this end we engineered two stable cell lines with the use of human 293 Flp-In T-Rex cells as parental. First cell line inducible expressed miRNAs silencing endogenous copy of C6orf203 gene while second one expressed additionally transgenic version of FLAG-tagged C6orf203 which contained silent mutations causing insensitivity to miRNA. We also analyzed RNA isolated from parental 293 Flp-In T-Rex cells. RNAseq libraries were prepared with the use of strand-specific library preparation procedures. RNAs were random fragmented and reverse transcribed using random oligomers as primers (dUTP-based protocol, see PMID: 29590189, PMID: 22609201; this pipeline enables analysis of RNAs (> ~100 nucleotides)). RNA was isolated from unfractionated cells using TRI-Reagent. Before preparation of the libraries total RNA was subjected to depletion of nuclear-encoded rRNAs (Ribo-Zero rRNA Removal Kit (Human/Mouse/Rat), Epicenter). Libraries were sequenced with the help of Illumina sequencing platform.
Quantitative proteomics revealed C6orf203/MTRES1 as a factor preventing stress-induced transcription deficiency in human mitochondria.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
A cell line was derived from a mammary carcinoma in the transgenic FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-ErbB2)NDL2-5Mul mouse. The line, referred to as “NDL(UCD)” is adapted to standard cell culture and can be transplanted into syngeneic FVB/N mice. The line maintains a stable phenotype over multiple in vitro passages and rounds of in vivo transplantation. The cell line exhibits high expression of ErbB2 and ErbB3 and signaling molecules downstream from ErbB2. The line was previously shown to be reactive to anti-immune checkpoint therapy with responses conducive to immunotherapy studies. Here, using both histology/immunophenotyping and gene expression/microarray analysis, we show that the syngeneic transplant tumors elicit an immune reaction in the adjacent stroma, with additional tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. We also show that this immune activating effect is greater in the syngeneic transplants than in the primary tumors arising in the native transgenic mouse. We further analyzed the PD-1 and PD-L-1 expression in the model and found PD-L1 expression in the tumors and in vitro. In conclusion these data document the validity and utility of this cell line for in vivo preclinical immunotherapy trials. Overall design: Flash frozen NDL(UCD) cell line tumor transplants were sampled and whole-transcriptome analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based RNA-Sequencing. This series includes three biological replicates of the same cell line grown in three different (but same strain) mouse.
A Syngeneic ErbB2 Mammary Cancer Model for Preclinical Immunotherapy Trials.
Sex, Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
We have established AR3 transgenic mouse models with targeted expression of AR3 in the prostate using the ARR2PB promoter.
Androgen receptor splice variant AR3 promotes prostate cancer via modulating expression of autocrine/paracrine factors.
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Epigenetic and metabolic reprogrammings are implicated in cancer progression with unclear mechanisms. We report here that the histone methyltransferase NSD2 drives cancer cell and tumor resistance to therapeutics such as tamoxifen, doxorubicin, and radiation by reprogramming of glucose metabolism. NSD2 coordinately up-regulates expression of TIGAR, HK2 and G6PD and stimulates pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) production of NADPH for ROS reduction. We discover that elevated expression of TIGAR, previously characterized as a fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, is localized in the nuclei of resistant tumor cells where it stimulates NSD2 expression and global H3K36me2 mark. Mechanistically, TIGAR interacts with the antioxidant regulator Nrf2 and facilitates chromatin assembly of Nrf2-H3K4me3 methylase MLL1 and elongating Pol-II, independent of its metabolic enzymatic activity. In human tumors, high levels of NSD2 correlate strongly with early recurrence and poor survival and are associated with nuclear-localized TIGAR. This study defines a nuclear TIGAR-mediated, epigenetic autoregulatory loop functioning in redox rebalance for resistance to tumor therapeutics. Overall design: A total of 4 samples were analyzed in this study. The study included two cell lines, MCF7 and the tamoxifen-resistant subline TMR. Both were were cultured in medium containing vehicle control and/or 4-hydroxytamoxifen (Tam). The untreated MCF7 and TMR cell lines served as controls for the study.
Reprogramming metabolism by histone methyltransferase NSD2 drives endocrine resistance via coordinated activation of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes.
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We have generated a large collection of normal human mammary epithelial cell strains from women aged 16 to 91 years, derived from primary tissues, to enable functional and molecular interrogation of aging. We demonstrate in finite-lifespan cultured and uncultured epithelial cells that aging is associated with reduction of myoepithelial cells and with increases in luminal cells expressing keratin 14 and integrin 6, traits that are expressed exclusively in myoepithelial cells in women under 30. We find that changes to the luminal lineage result from age-dependent expansion of multipotent progenitors that bear defects resulting in incompletely differentiated luminal cells. These findings were verified in vivo in normal breast tissues. Myoepithelial cells have been suggested to act as tumor suppressors, and progenitor cells are implicated as the etiological roots of mammary carcinomas. Thus with aging there is a shift in the balance of luminal/myoepithelial lineages, and changes in the functional spectrum of multipotent progenitors, which presages increased potential for malignant transformation.
Accumulation of multipotent progenitors with a basal differentiation bias during aging of human mammary epithelia.
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Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1tm1Rds homozygous) uniquely develop estrogen-receptor-positive mammary tumors with incomplete penetrance and long latency. We studied the growth and development of the mammary glands in Stat1-null mice. Stat1-null MGs have faulty branching morphogenesis with abnormal terminal end buds. The Stat1-null MG also fails to sustain growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by added progesterone and prolactin. Transplantation of wild-type bone-marrow into Stat1-null mice does not reverse the mammary gland developmental defects. Media conditioned by Stat1-null epithelium-cleared mammary fat pads does not stimulate epithelial proliferation whereas it is stimulated by conditioned media derived from either wild-type or progesterone and prolactin-treated Stat1-null epithelium-cleared mammary fat pads. Microarrays and multiplex cytokine protein assays showed that the mammary gland of Stat1-null mice had lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal mammary gland growth and development. Transplanted Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in Stat1-null mammary gland compared to wild-type recipient mammary gland. Stat1-null hosts responded to tumor transplants with granulocytic infiltrates while wild-type hosts show a mononuclear response. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic Stat1-null epithelium primarily depends on the hormonal milieu and factors, such as cytokines, from the mammary stroma.
Abnormal Mammary Development in 129:STAT1-Null Mice is Stroma-Dependent.
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We analysed the effect of depriving the human cell of the catalytic activity of the nuclear 5' to 3' exoribonuclease XRN2. Catalytic amino acids in this protein had been defined previously, so it was possible to design a mutated catalytically inactive form of the protein (XRN2D233A-D235A) (PMID: 19194460). We created 293 Flp-In T-REx stable cell lines that induciby silence endogenous XRN2, and concomitantly express wild-type or inactive XRN2 in fusion with EGFP at the C-terminus. Thus, complementation of silencing of endogenous XRN2 with the expression of mutant version of the protein allows to directly link potential phenotypes with the lack of XRN2 enzymatic activity. To this end we isolated total RNA from tetracycline-treated cells, depleted it from rRNA and conducted strand-specific deep sequencing. Overall design: 6 samples were analysed. 3 replicates of control cells (endogenous copy of XRN2 gene is silenced and catalytically active exogenous XRN2-EGFP is expressed) and 3 replicates of cells deprived of XRN2 ribonucleolytic activity (endogenous copy of XRN2 gene is silenced and catalytically inactive exogenous XRN2(D233AD235A)-EGFP is expressed)
Versatile approach for functional analysis of human proteins and efficient stable cell line generation using FLP-mediated recombination system.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Low affinity Tregs are important for controlling autoimmune diabetes. Overall design: High and low affinity Tregs were isolated from the spleen and pancreatic islets of two-TCR retrogenic mice expressing the insulin-specific TCRs 4-8 and 12-4.4m1.
Cutting Edge: Low-Affinity TCRs Support Regulatory T Cell Function in Autoimmunity.
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