shRNA-mediated ablation of the RING-finger protein TRIM52 from multiple glioblastoma cell lines reduces proliferation and tumorigenesis. To identify gene signatures underlying this phenomenon, transcritional profile of TRIM52 knockdown cells was compared to control cells. Upon TRIM52 ablation, we find 278 differentially regulated genes. Gene ontology analysis reveals that many of the upregulated genes are associated with glycolysis and biosynthetic processes. Overall design: U87MG glioblastoma cells were stably transduced with doxycycline-inducible shRNA constructs targeting TRIM52 (two different shRNAs) or controls (two different non-targeting shRNAs). Knockdown was induced for five days using 2Âµg/ml doxycycline. shRNA expressing cells were sorted based on shRNA-coupled GFP expression via flow cytometry. mRNA sequening was performed in duplicate per shRNA cell line.
Human tripartite motif protein 52 is required for cell context-dependent proliferation.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Steroid hormones regulate essential physiological processes and inadequate levels are associated with various pathological conditions. In testosterone-producing Leydig cells, steroidogenesis is strongly stimulated by LH via its receptor leading to increased cAMP production and expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein, which is essential for the initiation of steroidogenesis. Leydig cell steroidogenesis then passively decreases following the rapid degradation of cAMP into AMP by phosphodiesterases. In this study, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated following cAMP breakdown in MA-10 and MLTC-1 Leydig cells. Activated AMPK then actively inhibits cAMP-induced steroidogenesis by repressing the expression of key regulators of steroidogenesis including Star and Nr4a1. Similar results were obtained in Y-1 adrenal cells and in the constitutive steroidogenic cell line R2C. Our data identify AMPK as an active repressor of steroid hormone biosynthesis in steroidogenic cells that is essential to preserve cellular energy and prevent excess steroid production.
A cell-autonomous molecular cascade initiated by AMP-activated protein kinase represses steroidogenesis.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
We obtained single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) profiles of CD14+ monocytes isolated from human peripheral blood at 0, 3 and 6 days after M-CSF stimulation (to differentiate the cells into macrophages) across multiple donors. Integration of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data from multiple experiments, laboratories, and technologies can uncover biological insights, but current methods for scRNA-seq data integration are limited by a requirement for datasets to derive from functionally similar cells. We use a novel algorithm, Scanorama, to identify and merge the shared cell types among all pairs of datasets and to accurately integrate heterogeneous scRNA-seq datasets. Scanorama is sensitive to subtle temporal changes within the same cell lineage, successfully integrating functionally similar cells across time series data of CD14+ monocytes at different stages of differentiation into macrophages. Scanorama is not only able to differentiate between completely disparate cell types but is also sensitive to subtler transcriptional changes within a cell type due to processes like stimulation. Overall design: scRNA-seq of human CD14+ monocytes at 0, 3, and 6 days after M-CSF stimulation in multiple donors
Efficient integration of heterogeneous single-cell transcriptomes using Scanorama.
Specimen part, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Targets of Retinoic Acid (RA) and 3,4-didehydroretinoic acid (ddRA) were identified in primary human epidermal keratinocytes grown in the presence of atRA or ddRA for 4 and 24 hours.
The effect of two endogenous retinoids on the mRNA expression profile in human primary keratinocytes, focusing on genes causing autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis.
Disruption of N-linked glycosylation has a broad impact on proper glycosylation of nascent glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which affect multiple signalling pathways( by changing the stability of membrane proteins or the signalling ability of membrane receptors) and may be responsible of the fibrotic stage associated to CDG type-I.
Fibrotic response in fibroblasts from congenital disorders of glycosylation.
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Testosterone production by Leydig cells is a tightly regulated process requiring synchronized expression of several steroidogenic genes by numerous transcription factors. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) is a transcription factor recently identified in somatic cells of the male gonad. In other tissues, MEF2 is an essential regulator of organogenesis and cell differentiation. So far in the testis, MEF2 was found to regulate Leydig cell steroidogenesis by controlling Nr4a1 and Star gene expression. To expand our understanding of the role of MEF2 in Leydig cells, we performed microarray analyses of MA-10 Leydig cells depleted in MEF2 and results were analyzed using the Partek and IPA softwares. Several genes were differentially expressed in MEF2-depleted Leydig cells and 15 were validated by qPCR. A large number of these genes are known to be involved in fertility, gonad morphology and steroidogenesis and include Pde8a, Por, Ahr, Bmal1, Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, Map2k1, Tsc22d3, Nr0b2, Smad4, and Star, which were all downregulated in the absence of MEF2. In silico analyses revealed the presence of MEF2 binding sites within the first 2 kb upstream the transcription start site of the Por, Bmal1, and Nr0b2 promoters, which suggests a direct regulation by MEF2. Using transient transfections in MA-10 Leydig cells, siRNA knockdown, and a MEF2-Engrailed dominant negative, we found that MEF2 activates the Por, Bmal1 and Nr0b2 promoters and that this requires an intact MEF2 element. Our results identify novel target genes for MEF2 and define MEF2 as an important regulator of Leydig cell function and male reproduction.
Novel Targets for the Transcription Factors MEF2 in MA-10 Leydig Cells.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
Exploring the expression profile of ovarian clear cell carcinoma cancer cell subpopulations- derived tumors grown within a murine and a human cellular tissues.
Niche-dependent gene expression profile of intratumoral heterogeneous ovarian cancer stem cell populations.
Specimen partView Samples
Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human hepatocyte-like cells (iHeps) could provide a powerful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying human liver development and disease, testing the efficacy and safety of pharmaceuticals across different patients (i.e. personalized medicine), and enabling cell-based therapies in the clinic. However, current in vitro protocols that rely upon growth factors and extracellular matrices (ECM) alone yield iHeps with low levels of liver functions relative to adult primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). Moreover, these low hepatic functions in iHeps are difficult to maintain for prolonged times (weeks to months) in culture. Here, we engineered a micropatterned co-culture (iMPCC) platform in a multi-well format that, in contrast to conventional confluent cultures, significantly enhanced the functional maturation and longevity of iHeps in culture for 4 weeks in vitro when benchmarked against multiple donors of PHHs. In particular, iHeps were micropatterned onto collagen-coated domains of empirically optimized dimensions, surrounded by 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts, and then sandwiched with a thin layer of ECM gel (Matrigel). We assessed iHep maturity via global gene expression profiles, hepatic polarity, secretion of albumin and urea, basal CYP450 activities, phase-II conjugation, drug-mediated CYP450 induction, and drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: Controlling both homotypic interactions between iHeps and heterotypic interactions with stromal fibroblasts significantly matures iHep functions and maintains them for several weeks in culture. In the future, iMPCCs could prove useful for drug screening, studying molecular mechanisms underlying iHep differentiation, modeling liver diseases, and integration into human-on-a-chip systems being designed to assess multi-organ responses to compounds.
Enhancing the functional maturity of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human hepatocytes by controlled presentation of cell-cell interactions in vitro.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in school-aged children. In addition to genetic factors, environmental influences or gene x environmental interactions also play an important role in ADHD. One example of a well studied environmental risk factor for ADHD is exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we investigated whether the well-established genetic model of ADHD based on the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) and a well established PCB-based model of ADHD exhibited similar molecular changes in brain circuits involved in ADHD. The brains from 28 male rats (8 SHR, 8 Sprague-Dawley (SD) controls, 8 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) controls, and 4 PCB-exposed SD rats) were harvested at postnatal day 55-65 and RNA was isolated from six brain regions of interest. The RNA was analyzed for differences in expression of a set of 308 probe sets interrogating 218 unique genes considered highly relevant to ADHD or epigenetic gene regulation using the Rat RAE 230 2.0 GeneChip (Affymetrix). Selected observations were confirmed by real time quantitative RT-PCR. The results show that the expression levels of genes Gnal, COMT, Adrbk1, Ntrk2, Hk1, Syt11 and Csnk1a1 were altered in both the SHR rats and the PCB-exposed SD rats. Arrb2, Stx12, Aqp6, Syt1, Ddc and Pgk1 expression levels were changed only in the PCB-exposed SD rats. Genes with altered expression only in the SHRs included Oprm1, Calcyon, Calmodulin, Lhx1 and Hes6.The epigenetic genes Crebbp, Mecp2 and Hdac5 are significantly altered in both models. The data provide strong evidence that genes and environment can affect different set of genes in two different models of ADHD and yet result in the similar disease-like symptoms.
A comparison of molecular alterations in environmental and genetic rat models of ADHD: a pilot study.
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