To examine changes in gene expression that might occur in CNS glial cells in response to the secreted products of immune cells, we used gene array analysis to assess the early effects of different cytokine mixtures on rat mixed CNS glia in culture. We compared effects at 6 hours of cytokines typical of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes, and monocyte marophages (M/M).. We found unique patterns of changes in gene expression for each of the three cytokine mixtures, including changes in immune-related molecules, neurotrophins, growth factors, proteins involved in axon/glial interactions, ion channels, neurotransmitters, mitochondrial function and apoptosis. These changes may have relevance in neuroprotective or damaging mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, specifically with regard to formation, repair or inhibition of lesion formation.
Differential effects of Th1, monocyte/macrophage and Th2 cytokine mixtures on early gene expression for glial and neural-related molecules in central nervous system mixed glial cell cultures: neurotrophins, growth factors and structural proteins.
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A new method to measure elongation and intitiation rates Overall design: Reversal inhibition of transcription with DRB and tagging newly transcribed RNA with 4-thiouridine (4sU)
4sUDRB-seq: measuring genomewide transcriptional elongation rates and initiation frequencies within cells.
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Cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A is a precursor for many biotechnologically relevant compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this yeast, cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis and growth strictly depend on expression of either the Acs1 or Acs2 isoenzyme of acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). Since hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate in the ACS reaction constrains maximum yields of acetyl-CoA-derived products, this study explores replacement of ACS by two ATP-independent pathways for acetyl-CoA synthesis. After evaluating expression of different bacterial genes encoding acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (A-ALD) and pyruvate-formate lyase (PFL), acs1 acs2 S. cerevisiae strains were constructed in which A-ALD or PFL successfully replaced ACS. In A-ALD-dependent strains, aerobic growth rates of up to 0.27 h-1 were observed, while anaerobic growth rates of PFL-dependent S. cerevisiae (0.21 h-1) were stoichiometrically coupled to formate production. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures, intracellular metabolite analysis did not reveal major differences between A-ALD-dependent and reference strains. However, biomass yields on glucose of A-ALD- and PFL-dependent strains were lower than those of the reference strain. Transcriptome analysis suggested that reduced biomass yields were caused by acetaldehyde and formate in A-ALD- and PFL-dependent strains, respectively. Transcript profiles also indicated that a previously proposed role of Acs2 in histone acetylation is probably linked to cytosolic acetyl-CoA levels rather than to direct involvement of Acs2 in histone acetylation. While, for the first time, demonstrating that yeast ACS can be fully replaced by alternative reactions, this study demonstrates that further modifications are needed to achieve optimal in vivo efficiencies of the supply of acetyl-CoA as product precursor.
Replacement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae acetyl-CoA synthetases by alternative pathways for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis.
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The liver is a multifunctional organ, which undergoes rapid changes during the developmental period and relies on tightly-regulated gene expression. Little is known regarding the complex expression patterns of mRNAs during the early stages of human liver development in comparison to post-natal livers.
Comprehensive gene and microRNA expression profiling reveals a role for microRNAs in human liver development.
Specimen partView Samples
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors thousands of bacterial species that include symbionts as well as potential pathogens. The immune responses that limit access of these bacteria to underlying tissue remain poorly defined.
Gammadelta intraepithelial lymphocytes are essential mediators of host-microbial homeostasis at the intestinal mucosal surface.
Specimen partView Samples
Background: The main bottleneck for genomic studies of tumors is the limited availability of fresh frozen (FF) samples collected from patients, coupled with comprehensive long-term clinical follow-up. This shortage could be alleviated by using existing large archives of routinely obtained and stored Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissues. However, since these samples are partially degraded, their RNA sequencing is technically challenging. Results: In an effort to establish a reliable and practical procedure, we compared three protocols for RNA sequencing using pairs of FF and FFPE samples, both taken from the same breast tumor. In contrast to previous studies, we compared the expression profiles obtained from the two matched sample types, using the same protocol for both. Three protocols were tested on low initial amounts of RNA, as little as 100 ng, to represent the possibly limited availability of clinical samples. For two of the three protocols tested, poly(A) selection (mRNA-seq) and ribosomal-depletion, the total gene expression profiles of matched FF and FFPE pairs were highly correlated. For both protocols, differential gene expression between two FFPE samples was in agreement with their matched FF samples. Notably, although expression levels of FFPE samples by mRNA-seq were mainly represented by the 3'-end of the transcript, they yielded very similar results to those obtained by ribosomal-depletion protocol, which produces uniform coverage across the transcript. Further, focusing on clinically relevant genes, we showed that the high correlation between expression levels persists at higher resolutions. Conclusions: Using the poly(A) protocol for FFPE exhibited, unexpectedly, similar efficiency to the ribosomal-depletion protocol, with the latter requiring much higher (2-3 fold) sequencing depth to compensate for the relative low fraction of reads mapped to the transcriptome. The results indicate that standard poly(A)-based RNA sequencing of archived FFPE samples is a reliable and cost-effective alternative for measuring mRNA-seq on FF samples. Expression profiling of FFPE samples by mRNA-seq can facilitate much needed extensive retrospective clinical genomic studies. Overall design: We perform an unbiased evaluation of RNA-seq of archived tumor tissues by comparing the same library preparation methods for both FF and FFPE matched tumor samples and for small amounts of total RNA starting material. We have 3 matched FF/FFPE tumor samples with a moderate archival time of about 4-5 years (T1=T3), and additional 3 FFPE tumor samples archived for more than 10 years (T4-T6). all samples were tested with two protocols: illumina Truseq RNA after poly(A) selection (mRNA-seq); and Truseq after ribosomal depletion (RiboZero). Several initial amounts of starting material was tested for eacg protocol.
mRNA-seq whole transcriptome profiling of fresh frozen versus archived fixed tissues.
Specimen part, Disease, SubjectView Samples
Data defines for the first time a whole bladder transcriptome of UPEC cystitis in female C57BL/6 mice using genome-wide expression profiling and temporal analysis to map early host response pathways stemming from UPEC colonization
Genome-wide mapping of cystitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli in mice identifies a unique bladder transcriptome that signifies pathogen-specific antimicrobial defense against urinary tract infection.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples
Different inflammatory stimuli contribute to the formation of atherosclerosis. It is hypothesized that although the end result is the same - plaque formation in arterial vessels - the pathogenesis is dependent on the etiology. In particular, platelets will respond differently depending on the inflammatory stimuli and timepoint.
Specific Inflammatory Stimuli Lead to Distinct Platelet Responses in Mice and Humans.
Specimen part, Treatment, TimeView Samples
The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl-CoA is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required the simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1a, E1ÃŸ, E2 and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2 and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS, that expressed these E. faecalis genes, grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs+ reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial micro-organisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. Overall design: For both strains - mutant strain IMY104 and reference strain CEN.PK113-7D'' three independent chemostat cultures were performed. Each of the chemosta was sampled for transcriptome analysis. Samples were processed as described below.
Engineering acetyl coenzyme A supply: functional expression of a bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Cell line, SubjectView Samples
RhoB null mice show decreases in pathological angiogenesis in the ischemic retina and reduces angiogenesis in response to cutaneous wounding, but enhances lymphangiogenesis following both dermal wounding and inflammatory challenge.
RhoB controls coordination of adult angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis following injury by regulating VEZF1-mediated transcription.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples