Distinct shaping of the upper versus lower facial skeleton is essential for function of the vertebrate jaw and middle ear, yet the cellular mechanisms by which this occurs have remained unclear. Here, we show that Endothelin1 (Edn1) signaling accelerates mesenchymal condensation and subsequent cartilage formation in the lower face through antagonism of Jagged-Notch signaling and Prrx1 transcription factors. A genomic analysis of facial skeletal precursors in mutants and overexpression embryos reveals that Jagged-Notch signaling represses genes that are strongly induced as pharyngeal arch neural crest-derived cells begin skeletal differentiation. In wild types, initial Jagged-Notch repression dorsally ensures that barx1+ condensations and cartilage differentiation occur first in ventral-intermediate zones of the pharyngeal arches. Reduced Jagged-Notch signaling results in an expansion of pre-cartilage condensations in the upper face, with loss of barx1 partially restoring dorsal cartilage shapes in jag1b mutants. Further, by studying new mutants for zebrafish prrx1a and prrx1b, we find that Prrx1 genes function in parallel to Jagged-Notch signaling to restrict the formation of dorsal barx1+ pre-cartilage condensations. Consistently, combined losses of jag1b and prrx1a/b robustly rescue ventral barx1+ condensations and lower facial cartilage development in edn1 mutants. Together, our work suggests that Edn1 works through parallel inhibition of Jagged-Notch and Prrx1 pathways to promote an earlier and more extensive establishment of cartilage condensations in the lower face. Overall design: We performed RNAseq on FACS-sorted neural crest-derived pharyngeal arch cells (fli1a:GFP; sox10:DsRed double positive) from wild-type embryos at 3 different stages (20, 28, and 36 hours post fertilization) and embryos with altered levels of Edn1 and Notch signaling (edn1 mutants and hsp70I:Gal4; UAS:Edn1 transgenics; jag1b mutants, dibenzazepine-treated embryos, and hsp70I:Gal4; UAS:NICD transgenics. We also sequenced RNA from heat-shocked UAS:Edn1+ and hsp70I:Gal4+ transgenics and jag1b+/+ controls.
Competition between Jagged-Notch and Endothelin1 Signaling Selectively Restricts Cartilage Formation in the Zebrafish Upper Face.
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OT-I T cells were exposed to CpG ODN-activated CCR5ko Lymph nodes for 6 h, stained for surface CCR5 and FACS-sorted into CCR5+ and CCR5- fractions
Transient Surface CCR5 Expression by Naive CD8+ T Cells within Inflamed Lymph Nodes Is Dependent on High Endothelial Venule Interaction and Augments Th Cell-Dependent Memory Response.
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Purpose: The goal of this study is to analyze the transcriptional pathways regulated by Fbxo22 and Keap1 in mouse lung adeno carcinoma cells. Methods: mouse lung adeno carcinoma cells either Keap1 wild type (KP) or mutant (KPK), have been transfected for 3 days with siRNA targeting Fbxo22. Knock down efficiency has been evaluated by western blot (using specific antibody for Fbxo22) and qPCR (using specific oligos for Fbxo22) . Results: The transcriptomic analysis helps us to support our finding that loss of either Keap1 or Fbxo22 induces metastases Overall design: All 12 samples generated by deep sequencing in triplicate
Nrf2 Activation Promotes Lung Cancer Metastasis by Inhibiting the Degradation of Bach1.
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mRNA expression levels were determined by NGS for wildtype larvae as well as for larvae lacking HP1a [Su(var)205^04/Su(var)205^05 transheterozygotes]. Overall design: RNA samples from wildtype (OR) and HP1a mutant third instar larvae were examined, using duplicate biological samples and Illumina NGS.
Enrichment of HP1a on Drosophila chromosome 4 genes creates an alternate chromatin structure critical for regulation in this heterochromatic domain.
Cancer cells must evade immune responses at distant sites to establish metastases. The lung is a frequent site for metastasis. We hypothesized that lung-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms create an immunologically permissive environment for tumor colonization. We found that T cell-intrinsic expression of the oxygen-sensing prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD) proteins is required to maintain local tolerance against innocuous antigens in the lung, but powerfully licenses colonization by circulating tumor cells. PHD proteins limit pulmonary type helper (Th)-1 responses, promote CD4+-regulatory T (Treg) cell induction, and restrain CD8+ T cell effector function. Tumor colonization is accompanied by PHD protein-dependent induction of pulmonary Treg cells and suppression of IFN-g-dependent tumor clearance. T cell-intrinsic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of PHD proteins limits tumor colonization of the lung and improves the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy. Collectively, PHD proteins function in T cells to coordinate distinct immunoregulatory programs within the lung that are permissive to cancer metastasis. Overall design: RNA expression was measured by RNA-Seq at day 4 following stimulation of naÃ¯ve FACS-sorted CD4+ T cells with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies in the presence of indicated doses of TGF-b. Gene expression was analysed separately in control Cd4Cre (WT) and Egln1fl/fl Egln2fl/fl Egln3fl/fl Cd4Cre (tKO) cells, or in cells treated with the pharmacological PHD inhibitor dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) and control vehicle-treated cells.
Oxygen Sensing by T Cells Establishes an Immunologically Tolerant Metastatic Niche.
Specimen part, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Primary HBE cells were stimulated with IL-22 and IL-17, and gene expression was studied using an Affymetrix platform microarray, in order to investigate which genes may be upregulated or downregulated in response to these cytokines. Of particular interest was the host defense genes such as antimicrobial peptides, which have been shown to be upregulated by IL-22 and IL-17 in skin keratinocytes.
IL-22 mediates mucosal host defense against Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia.
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HMF and furfural were pulse added to xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae during either the glucose consumption phase or the xylose consumption phase. Transcriptome samples were collected before and one hour after pulsing of inhibitors.
Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase.
Cultures of primary human airway epithelial cells (HAE cells) were exposed to an MDCK equivalent MOI of 0.01 of several swine- and human-origin influenza viruses and RNA was extracted at the 12, 16, and 24 hours post infection.
25-Hydroxycholesterol acts as an amplifier of inflammatory signaling.
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Oligodendrocytes have recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we differentiated fibroblasts into induced neural progenitors and subsequently into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. To confirm that the cells obtained with this protocol express the gene signature of oligodendrocytes, we performed a small gene expression study limited to four iOligodendrocyte lines from two controls (nos. 155 and 170) and two patients (nos. 12 and 17), four iAstrocyte lines from the same samples, and four fibroblast lines from one of our previously published studies
Oligodendrocytes contribute to motor neuron death in ALS via SOD1-dependent mechanism.
Specimen part, DiseaseView Samples
Background: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases represent a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer due to the disappointing efficacy of HER2-targeted therapies in the brain microenvironment. The antibody-drug conjugate ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) has shown efficacy in trastuzumab-resistant systemic breast cancer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that T-DM1 could overcome trastuzumab resistance in preclinical models of brain metastases.
Preclinical Efficacy of Ado-trastuzumab Emtansine in the Brain Microenvironment.
Specimen part, Disease, TimeView Samples