The Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 KLUH (KLU)/CYP78A5 promotes organ growth in a non-cell autonomous manner. To identify genes regulated by KLU activity, homozygous klu-2 mutants carrying constructs for EtOH-inducible overexpression of wild-type KLU (35S::AlcR-AlcA::KLU) or of enzymatically inactive KLU protein (35S::AlcR-AlcA::KLUmut) were induced with EtOH and sampled at 90 min and 240 min after induction for gene expression changes.
Control of plant organ size by KLUH/CYP78A5-dependent intercellular signaling.
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To study the role of epigenetics and hormones on hematopoietic stem cell function, hematopoietic stem and progenitor (LSK) cells were sorted from E14.5 embryos of wild-type, DNMT3B7 hemizygous or DNMT3B7 homozygous genotype. The expression analysis was performed to provide information regarding the mechanism by which hormones regulate hematopoiesis. Overall design: Hematopoietic stem and progenitor (LSK) cells from E14.5 murine embryonic fetal livers of wild-type, or DNMT3B7 transgenic genotypes were flow-sorted, and RNA isolated for expression analysis by RNA-Sequencing
Epigenetic Control of Apolipoprotein E Expression Mediates Gender-Specific Hematopoietic Regulation.
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Very little is known about splicing and its regulation in germ cells, particularly during meiosis. This paper describes the role of a male germ cell-specific protein, Tudor containing protein 6 (TDRD6), in assembly of the spliceosome in spermatocytes. We show that in spermatocytes, TDRD6 interacts with the key protein methyl transferase of the splicing pathway PRMT5. PRMT5 methylates arginines in substrate proteins. In a methylation dependent manner, TDRD6 also associates with spliceosomal core protein SmB in the absence of RNA, thus before an RNP-type spliceosome has been assembled. In Tdrd6-/- primary spermatocytes, PRMT5''s association with SmB and the arginine dimethylation of SmB are much reduced. Abrogation of arginine methylation impaired the assembly of spliceosomes and the presence of the spliceosomal RNA U5 is aberrantly increased. These deficiencies in spliceosome maturation correlated with decreased numbers of Cajal bodies and gems involved in later stages, i.e. nuclear snRNP maturation. To reveal functional consequences of these deficiencies, transcriptome analysis of primary spermatocytes showed high numbers of splicing defects such as aberrant usage of intron and exons as well as aberrant representation of splice junctions upon TDRD6 loss. This study reveals a novel function of TDRD6 in spliceosome maturation and mRNA splicing in spermatocytes. Overall design: Examination of splicing defects in isolated diplotene cells of 20dpp Tdrd6-/- vs. Tdrd6+/- testes pooled from at least 4 mice by deep sequencing in duplicate using Illumina® HiSeq 2500.
TDRD6 mediates early steps of spliceosome maturation in primary spermatocytes.
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Currently there is a lack of effective therapies which result in long-term durable response for patients presenting with advanced and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). This is due in part to a lack of molecular factors which can be targeted pharmacologically. In order to identify novel tumor-specific targets, we performed high throughput gene array analysis screening numerous patient ccRCC tumor tissues across all stages of disease, and compared their gene expression levels to matched normal kidney. Our results identify a number of genes which demonstrate tumor-specific overexpression, and may present as novel targets for therapy.
Neuronal pentraxin 2 supports clear cell renal cell carcinoma by activating the AMPA-selective glutamate receptor-4.
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Background: The biological mechanisms underlying cancer cell motility and invasiveness remain unclear, although it has been hypothesized that they involve some type of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
Human cancer cells express Slug-based epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene expression signature obtained in vivo.
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Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were isolated from the femora and tibiae of irtTA-GBD*-TAg transgenic mice. Using cellular cloning we established skeletal progenitors with distinct differentiation properties and analysed their transcriptome. Unipotent osteogenic and adipogenic cells expressed specific transcriptional programs whereas bipotent clones combined expression of those genes and did not show a unique signature. Overall design: Expression profiling (RNA-seq) of two independent clones from different mice representing skeletal progenitors with the following characteristics: tripotent clones (Osteogenic, Adipogenic, Chondrogenic = OAC1 and OAC2); bipotent clones (Osteogenic, Adipogenic = OA1 and OA2); unipotent clones (Osteogenic = O1 and O2; Adipogenic = A1 and A2). Further, we prepared and sequenced pools of several other clones from these two mice, with the following properties: tripotent clones (Osteogenic, Adipogenic, Chondrogenic = OAC3); bipotent clones (Osteogenic, Adipogenic = OA3; Osteogenic, Chondrogenic = OC3; Adipogenic, Chondrogenic = AC3); unipotent clones (Osteogenic = O3; Adipogenic = A3).
Clonal Analysis Delineates Transcriptional Programs of Osteogenic and Adipogenic Lineages of Adult Mouse Skeletal Progenitors.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
The mature eye lens contains a surface layer of epithelial cells called the lens epithelium that require a functional mitochondrial population to maintain the homeostasis and transparency of the entire lens. The lens epithelium overlies a core of terminally differentiated fiber cells that must degrade their mitochondria to achieve lens transparency. These distinct mitochondrial populations make the lens a useful model system to identify those genes that regulate the balance between mitochondrial homeostasis and elimination. Here we used an RNA sequencing and bioinformatics approach to identify the transcript levels of all genes expressed by distinct regions of the lens epithelium and maturing fiber cells of the embryonic Gallus gallus (chicken) lens. Our analysis detected over 15,000 unique transcripts expressed by the embryonic chicken lens. Of these, over 3000 transcripts exhibited significant differences in expression between lens epithelial cells and fiber cells. Multiple transcripts coding for separate mitochondrial homeostatic and degradation mechanisms were identified to exhibit preferred patterns of expression in lens epithelial cells that require mitochondria relative to lens fiber cells that require mitochondrial elimination. These included differences in the expression levels of metabolic, autophagy, and mitophagy transcripts between lens epithelial cells and lens fiber cells. These data provide a comprehensive window into all genes transcribed by the lens and those mitochondrial regulatory and degradation pathways that function to maintain mitochondrial populations in the lens epithelium and to eliminate mitochondria in maturing lens fiber cells. Overall design: Differentiation-state transcriptional analysis of embryonic chicken lenses was performed following microdissection of 100 embryonic day 13 (E13) chicken lenses into four distinct regions that represent a continuum of lens cell differentiation states: lens central epithelium (EC), equatorial epithelium (EQ), cortical fibers (FP), and central fibers (FC). Further analysis of the transcriptional content of biologically replicate samples was performed by Illumina directional mRNA sequencing and resulting reads mapped by TopHat and assembled with Cufflinks.
Differentiation state-specific mitochondrial dynamic regulatory networks are revealed by global transcriptional analysis of the developing chicken lens.
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C/EBP (CCAAT enhancer binding protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in survival and transformation of ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The aim of this study was to identify the downstream targets of C/EBP responsible for ALK-mediated oncogenesis. C/EBP was knocked down in ALK+ ALCL cell lines with a C/EBP-shRNA, followed by gene expression profiling (GEP). GEP analysis revealed a reproducible signature of genes that were significantly regulated by C/EBP. Classification into biological categories revealed overrepresentation of genes involved in the immune response, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Transcriptional regulation by C/EBP was found in 6 of 11 (BCL2A1, G0S2, TRIB1, S100A9, DDX21 and DDIT4) genes investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We demonstrated that BCL2A1, G0S2 and DDX21 play a crucial role in survival and proliferation of ALK+ ALCL cells. DDX21, a gene involved in rRNA biogenesis, was found differentially overexpressed in primary ALK+ ALCL cases. All three candidate genes were validated in primary ALCL cases by either immunohistochemistry or RT-qPCR. In conclusion, we identified and validated several key C/EBP-regulated genes with major impact on survival and cell growth in ALK+ ALCL, supporting the central role of C/EBP in ALK-mediated oncogenesis.
Identification of C/EBPβ target genes in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) by gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation.
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Gonadotroph adenomas comprise 1540 % of all pituitary tumors, are usually non-functioning and are often large and invasive at presentation. Surgery is the first-choice treatment, but complete resection is not always achieved, leading to high recurrence rates. As gonadotroph adenomas poorly respond to conventional pharmacological therapies, novel treatment strategies are needed. Their identification has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors. Recently, we demonstrated that MENX-affected rats develop gonadotroph adenomas closely resembling their human counterparts. To discover new genes/pathways involved in gonadotroph cells tumorigenesis, we performed transcriptome profiling of rat tumors versus normal pituitary. Adenomas showed overrepresentation of genes involved in cell cycle, development, cell differentiation/proliferation, and lipid metabolism. Bioinformatic analysis identified downstream targets of the transcription factor SF-1 as being up-regulated in rat (and human) adenomas. Meta-analyses demonstrated remarkable similarities between gonadotroph adenomas in rats and humans, and highlighted common dysregulated genes, several of which were not previously implicated in pituitary tumorigenesis. Two such genes, CYP11A1 and NUSAP1, were analyzed in 39 human gonadotroph adenomas by qRT-PCR and found to be up-regulated in 77 and 95 % of cases, respectively. Immunohistochemistry detected high P450scc (encoded by CYP11A1) and NuSAP expression in 18 human gonadotroph tumors. In vitro studies demonstrated for the first time that Cyp11a1 is a target of SF-1 in gonadotroph cells and promotes proliferation/survival of rat pituitary adenoma primary cells and cell lines. Our studies reveal clues about the molecular mechanisms driving rat and human gonadotroph adenomas development, and may help identify previously unexplored biomarkers for clinical use.
Transcriptome analysis of MENX-associated rat pituitary adenomas identifies novel molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of human pituitary gonadotroph adenomas.
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