The potential safety issues related to the acquisition of common genomic aberrations in hPSC cultures are well-recognized, but these risks have not been evaluated for sporadic mutations. Here, we explore whether a sporadic mutation that spontaneously arose in a hESC culture consisting of a single-copy deletion of chr17p13.1 would confer a survival advantage to the mutant cells. Compared to wild-type cells with two normal copies of the chr17p13.1 region, the mutant cells displayed a selective advantage when exposed to stressful conditions, and retained a higher percentage of pluripotent cells after two weeks of in vitro differentiation. Knockdown of TP53, which is a gene encompassed by the deleted region, in wild-type cells mimicked the chr17p13.1 deletion phenotype. RNA sequencing analysis showed differential expression of genes in pathways related to proliferation and differentiation. Thus, phenotypic implications of sporadic mutations must be taken into consideration before using the hPSC for clinical applications. Overall design: Triplicate cDNA libraries of two mutant WA09 lines with a single-copy deletion of chr17p13.1, and two wild-type WA09 lines, for a total of 12 libraries were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2500. The sequence reads were mapped to hg19 reference genome and hits that passed quality filters were analyzed for differential expression.
Spontaneous Single-Copy Loss of TP53 in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Markedly Increases Cell Proliferation and Survival.
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gene expression profiling of WT fibroblasts, hiPSCs, and NPCs compared to the same cell types isolated from patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia
SMRT compounds abrogate cellular phenotypes of ataxia telangiectasia in neural derivatives of patient-specific hiPSCs.
Specimen partView Samples
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have a markedly increased risk to develop cardiovascular disease, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors fail to account for this increased risk. We used microarray to probe the platelet transcriptome in individuals with SLE and healthy controls, and the gene and protein expression of a subset of differentially expressed genes was further investigated and correlated to platelet activation status. Real-time PCR was used to confirm a type I interferon (IFN) gene signature in patients with SLE, and the IFN-regulated proteins PRKRA, IFITM1 and CD69 (p<0.0001) were found to be up-regulated in platelets from SLE patients as compared to healthy volunteers. Notably, patients with a history of vascular disease had increased expression of type I IFN-regulated proteins as well as more activated platelets as compared with patients without vascular disease. We suggest that interferogenic immune complexes stimulate production of IFN which up-regulates the megakaryocytic type I IFN-regulated genes and proteins. This could affect platelet activation and contribute to development of vascular disease in SLE. In addition, platelets with type I IFN signature could be a novel marker for vascular disease in SLE.
Platelet transcriptional profile and protein expression in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: up-regulation of the type I interferon system is strongly associated with vascular disease.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, DiseaseView Samples
The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of bone metastases in breast cancer remain unclear. Disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow of breast cancer patients are commonly identified, even in early stage disease, but their potential to initiate metastases is not known. The mechanism whereby DTCs become overt metastatic tumour cells (MTCs) is therefore, an area of considerable interest. This study explored the analysable yield of genetic material from human biopsy samples in order to describe differences in gene expression between DTCs and bone MTCs. Thirteen breast cancer patients with bone metastases underwent a CT-guided bone metastasis biopsy and a bone marrow biopsy. Tumour cells were enriched and gene expression profiling was conducted to identify differentially expressed genes. The analysable yield of sufficient RNA for microarray analysis was 60% from bone metastasis biopsies and 80% from bone marrow biopsies. A signature of 133 candidate genes differentially expressed between DTCs and MTCs was identified. Several genes relevant to breast cancer metastasis to bone (osteopontin, CTGF, parathyroid hormone receptor, EGFR) were significantly overexpressed in MTCs as compared to DTCs. Biopsies of bone metastases and bone marrow rarely yield enough tissue for robust molecular biology studies using clinical samples. The findings obtained however are interesting and seem to overlap with the bone metastasis gene expression signature described in murine xenograft models. Larger biopsy specimens or improved RNA extraction techniques may improve analysable yield and feasibility of these techniques.
Mechanisms and pathways of bone metastasis: challenges and pitfalls of performing molecular research on patient samples.
Specimen part, DiseaseView Samples
Xist is indispensable for X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female mammalian cells. However, how Xist RNA directs chromosome-wide transcriptional inactivation of the X chromosome is largely unknown. Here, to study chromosome inactivation by Xist, we generated a system where ectopic Xist expression can be induced from several genomic contexts in aneuploid mouse ES cells. We found that ectopic Xist expression from any location on the X chromosome faithfully recapitulated endogenous XCI, showing the potency of Xist to initiate XCI. Genes that escape XCI remain consistently transcriptionally active upon ectopic XCI, regardless of their position relative to Xist transgenes, and the enrichment of CTCF at their promoters is implicated in directing XCI escape. Xist expression from autosomes facilitates their transcriptional silencing to different degrees, and gene density in proximity of the Xist transcription locus plays a central role in determining the efficiency of gene inactivation. We also show that the enrichment of LINE elements together with a specific chromatin environment facilitates Xist-mediated silencing of both X-linked and autosomal genes. These findings provide new insights into the epigenetic mechanisms that mediate XCI and identify genomic features that promote Xist-mediated chromosome-wide gene inactivation Overall design: 60 RNA-seq from mouse embryonic stem cells and fully differentiated neurons in which ectopic Xist epression is either triggered (plus samples) or not (minus samples) upon doxycycline treatment.
Genetic and epigenetic features direct differential efficiency of Xist-mediated silencing at X-chromosomal and autosomal locations.
Sex, Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
ROR?t is well recognized as the lineage defining transcription factor for TH17 cell development. However, the cell-intrinsic mechanisms that negatively regulate TH17 cell development and autoimmunity remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the transcriptional repressor REV-ERBa is exclusively expressed in TH17 cells, competes with ROR?t for their shared DNA consensus sequence, and negatively regulates TH17 cell development via repression of genes traditionally characterized as ROR?t-dependent, including Il17a. Deletion of REV-ERBa enhanced TH17-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, exacerbating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and colitis. Treatment with REV-ERB-specific synthetic ligands, which have similar phenotypic properties as ROR? modulators, suppressed TH17 cell development, was effective in colitis intervention studies, and significantly decreased the onset, severity, and relapse rate in several models of EAE without affecting thymic cellularity. Our results establish that REV-ERBa negatively regulates pro-inflammatory TH17 responses in vivo and identifies the REV-ERBs as potential targets for the treatment of TH17-mediated autoimmune diseases. Overall design: 10 samples; 5 conditions with 2 replicates per condition
REV-ERBα Regulates T<sub>H</sub>17 Cell Development and Autoimmunity.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Bone marrow derived dendritic cells were generated from Ubc9[fl;-] and Ubc9[+/+] mice. After in vitro derivation in the presence of GM-CSF, dendritic cells were treated with tamoxifen for four days to cause CreERT2 activation, and induce Ubc9 floxed allele deletion. This allowed comparative transcriptomic analysis of Ubc9[+/+] and Ubc9[-/-] dendritic cells unstimulated or stimulated with 10ng/ml LPS for one hour and six hours.
Sumoylation coordinates the repression of inflammatory and anti-viral gene-expression programs during innate sensing.
Specimen partView Samples
We report the global pattern of ileal gene expression in a cohort of 359 treatment-naÃ¯ve pediatric Crohn Disease, Ulcerative Colitis patients and controls. We focus on genes with consistent altered expression in inflamed and unaffected ileum of CD [ileal-involved CD (iCD) and non-invloved ileal CD (cCD)], but not in the ileum of ulcerative colitis or control. Overall design: Ileal biopsies were obtained during diagnostic colonoscopies of children and adolescents aged less than 17 years, who presented with IBD-like symptoms. All patients underwent baseline colonoscopy and histological characterization; non-IBD controls were those with suspected IBD, but with no microscopic or macroscopic inflammation and normal radiographic, endoscopic, and histologic findings. Biopsies were stored at -80 degrees.
Defining the Celiac Disease Transcriptome using Clinical Pathology Specimens Reveals Biologic Pathways and Supports Diagnosis.
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The expression profiles of 64 neuroblastic tumors (mainly neuroblastoma) were determined on Affymetrix chips HG U133 Plus 2.0.
Somatic and germline activating mutations of the ALK kinase receptor in neuroblastoma.
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