Cancer cachexia syndrome is observed in 80% of patients with advanced-stage cancer, and it is one of the most frequent causes of death. Severe wasting accounts for more than 80% in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Here we wanted to define, by using an microarray approach and the Pdx1-cre;LSL-KrasG12D;INK4a/arffl/fl, the pathways involved in muscle, liver and white adipose tissue wasting.
Pancreatic cancer-induced cachexia is Jak2-dependent in mice.
Age, Specimen part, Disease, Disease stageView Samples
Uveal melanoma is an aggressive cancer that metastasizes to the liver in about half of patients, being at that time almost always fatal. Identification of patients at high risk of metastases may provide indication for a frequent follow-up for early detection of metastases and treatment. The analysis of the gene expression profiling of primary human uveal melanomas showed high expression of SDCBP (encoding for syndecan-binding protein-1 or syntenin-1), which appeared higher in patients with recurrence, whereas expression of syndecans was lower and unrelated to progression. Moreover, we found that high expression of SDCBP gene was related to metastatic progression in two additional independent dataset of uveal melanoma patients. More importantly, immunohistochemistry showed that high expression of syntenin-1 protein in primary tumours was significantly related to metastatic recurrence in our cohort of patients. Syntenin-1 expression was confirmed by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry in cultured uveal melanoma cells or primary tumours. A pseudo-metastatic model of uveal melanoma to the liver was developed in NOD/SCID/IL2R null mice and the study of syntenin-1 expression in primary and metastatic lesions revealed higher syntenin-1 expression in metastases. The inhibition of SDCBP expression by siRNA impaired the ability of uveal melanoma cells to migrate in a woundhealing assay. These results suggest that SDCBP is involved in uveal melanoma progression and that it represents a candidate molecular marker of metastases and a potential therapeutic target.
Mda-9/syntenin is expressed in uveal melanoma and correlates with metastatic progression.
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In multiple myeloma (MM), hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) is overexpressed in the MM cells of the hypoxic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Herein, we explored in MM cells the in vitro and in vivo effects of persistent HIF-1 inhibition by expression of a lentivirus shRNA pool on proliferation, survival and transcriptional and pro-angiogenic profiles. Among the significantly modulated genes (326 and 361 genes in hypoxic and normoxic condition, respectively), we found that HIF-1 inhibition in the human myeloma cell line JJN3 downregulates the pro-angiogenic molecules VEGF, IL8, IL10, CCL2, CCL5, and MMP9. Interestingly, several pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines were also inhibited, such as IL-7 and CCL3/MIP-1. The effect of HIF-1 inhibition was assessed in vivo in NOD/SCID mice both in subcutaneous and intratibial models, indicating in either case a dramatic reduction of weight and volume of the tumor burden as a consequence of HIF-1 knockdown. Moreover, a significant reduction of the number of vessels per field and VEGF immunostaining were observed. Finally, in the intra-tibial experiments, HIF-1 inhibition significantly blocks JJN3-induced bone destruction. Overall, our data indicate that HIF-1 suppression in MM cells significantly blocks MM-induced angiogenesis and reduces both tumor burden and bone destruction in vivo, strongly indicating HIF-1 as an emerging therapeutic target in MM.
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α suppression in myeloma cells blocks tumoral growth in vivo inhibiting angiogenesis and bone destruction.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a lectin, involved in several processes related to cancer, including immunosuppression, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and metastases. Actually, the Gal-1 expression profile in multiple myeloma (MM) and its pathophysiological role in MMinduced angiogenesis and tumoral growth is unknown. Firstly, we found that Gal-1 was expressed by malignant plasma cells in MM patients and that its expression was up-regulated upon hypoxic treatment (1% of O2). Moreover the stable knock-down of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) in MM cells significantly downregulated Gal-1 expression. Thereafter, we performed Gal-1 inhibition by lentivirus shRNA anti-Gal-1 in human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) showing that its suppression did not affect cell proliferation and survival but modified their transcriptional profiles either in hypoxia or hypoxia condition. Interestingly pro-angiogenic genes including MMP9 and CCL2 were downregulated and those anti-angiogenic SEMA3A and CXCL10 were up-regulated by Gal-1 inhibition in MM cells. Data were also validated by Real time PCR and at protein level. Consistently we found that Gal-1 suppression in MM cells significantly decreased their pro-angiogenic proprieties by an in vitro assay. These evidences were confirmed in mice injected either subcutaneously or intratibially with HMCLs carrying a stable infection with shRNA anti-inhibition of Gal-1 or with the control vector cell line. Gal-1 suppression in both models showed a significant reduction in the tumoral burden and microvascular density compared to the control mice. Moreover, Gal-1 suppression induced smaller lytic lesions on x-ray in the intratibially model. Overall, our data indicate that Gal-1 is a new potential therapeutic target in MM.
Galectin-1 suppression delineates a new strategy to inhibit myeloma-induced angiogenesis and tumoral growth in vivo.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
We report that the HF/HS-mediated functional enrichment of genes of immunity and inflammation is driven toward normal by the AOF supplementation Obesity may not constantly associate with metabolic disorders and mortality later in life, raising the challenging concept of healthy obesity. Here, high fat-high sucrose (HF/HS) feeding produces hyperglycaemia and hypercholesterolemia, increases oxidative stress, elevates endotoxemia, expands adipose tissue (with enlarged adipocytes, macrophage infiltration and accumulation of cholesterol and oxysterols), and reduces lifespan of obese mice. Despite persistence of obesity, supplementation with an antioxidant formulation normalizes plasma lipids and endotoxemia, prevents macrophage recruitment in adipose tissue, reduces adipose accumulation of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides, and extends lifespan. The HF/HS-mediated functional enrichment of genes of immunity and inflammation (in particular response to lipopolysaccharides) is driven towards normal by the antioxidant formulation. It is concluded that the limitation of immune cell infiltration in adipose tissue on the long term by an antioxidant formulation can increase lifespan independently of body weight and fat storage. It constitutes the hallmark of a healthy adiposity trait. Overall design: Examination of the expression profile of mice adipose tissues fed either standard (Std), High-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) or HF/HS + antioxidant formulation (AOF) for 180 days
Healthy adiposity and extended lifespan in obese mice fed a diet supplemented with a polyphenol-rich plant extract.
Age, Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be deregulated in multiple myeloma (MM). We have previously reported the downregulation of miR-214 in MM compared to normal plasma cells. In the present study, we have explored the functional role of miR-214 in myeloma pathogenesis. Ectopic expression of miR-214 reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis of myeloma cells. In order to identify the potential direct target genes of miR-214 which could be involved in the biological pathways regulated by this miRNA, gene expression profiling of H929 myeloma cell line transfected with precursor miR-214 was carried out. Functional analysis revealed significant enrichment for DNA replication, cell cycle phase and DNA binding. We show that miR-214 directly down-regulates the expression of PSMD10, which encodes the oncoprotein gankyrin, and ASF1B, a histone chaperone required for DNA replication, by binding to their 3'-UTR. In addition, gankyrin inhibition induced an increase of P53 mRNA levels and subsequent up-regulation in CDKN1A (p21Waf1/Cip1) and BAX transcripts, which are direct transcriptional targets of p53. In conclusion, we demonstrate that miR-214 function as a tumor suppressor in myeloma by a positive regulation of p53 and inhibition of DNA replication.
Restoration of microRNA-214 expression reduces growth of myeloma cells through positive regulation of P53 and inhibition of DNA replication.
Cell lineView Samples
Rationale: Slit2 is a possible modulator of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - induced angiogenesis, but its effects have not been tested in large animal models. Objective: We studied the effect of Slit2 on therapeutic angiogenesis induced by VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) ligands Vammin and VEGF-D?N?C in vivo in rabbit skeletal muscles. The Slit2 target genes were also studied by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) in endothelial cells. Methods and Results: Adenoviral intramuscular gene transfers were performed into rabbit hindlimbs. Confocal and multiphoton microscopy were used for blood vessel imaging. Signaling experiments and gene expression analyses were performed to study mechanisms of Slit2 action. Slit2 decreased VEGFR2-mediated vascular permeability. It also reduced VEGFR2-mediated increase in blood perfusion and capillary enlargement, whereas sprouting of the capillaries was increased. Slit2 gene transfer alone did not have any effects on vascular functions or morphology. VEGFR2 activation was not affected by Slit2, but eNOS phosphorylation was diminished. The transcriptome profiling showed Slit2 downregulating angiogenesis-related genes such as nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) and Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) as well as genes related to endothelial cell migration and vascular permeability. Conclusions: Combining Slit2 with VEGFs adjusts VEGFR2-mediated angiogenic effects into a more physiological direction. This possibly allows the use of higher VEGF vector doses to achieve a more widespread vector and VEGF distribution in the target tissues leading to a better therapeutic outcome while reducing excess vascular permeability. Overall design: HUVEC mRNA profiles after adenoviral vector gene transfers in duplicate.
Slit2 modifies VEGF-induced angiogenic responses in rabbit skeletal muscle via reduced eNOS activity.
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The Hippocampus Consortium data set provides estimates of mRNA expression in the adult hippocampus of 99 genetically diverse strains of mice including 67 BXD recombinant inbred strains, 13 CXB recombinant inbred strains, a diverse set of common inbred strains, and two reciprocal F1 hybrids.
Genetics of the hippocampal transcriptome in mouse: a systematic survey and online neurogenomics resource.
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Although information on the molecular pathogenesis of Waldenstrms Macroglobulinemia (WM) has greatly improved in recent years, the exact cellular origin and the mechanisms behind WM transformation from IgM MGUS remain undetermined. Here, we undertook an integrative phenotypic, molecular and genomic approach to study clonal B-cells from newly-diagnosed patients with IgM MGUS (n=22), smoldering (n=17), and symptomatic WM (n=10). Through principal-component-analysis of multidimensional flow cytometry data, we demonstrated overlapping phenotypic profiles between clonal B-cells from IgM MGUS, smoldering and symptomatic WM patients. Similarly, virtually no genes were significantly deregulated between FACS-sorted clonal B-cells from the three disease stages. Interestingly, while the transcriptome of the Waldenstrms clone was highly deregulated as compared to CD25-CD22+ normal B-cells, significantly less genes were differentially expressed and specific WM pathways down-regulated while comparing the transcriptome of the Waldenstrms clone vs. its normal phenotypic counterpart: CD25+CD22+dim B-cells. The frequency of specific copy number abnormalities [+4, del(6q23.3-6q25.3), +12, and +18q11-18q23] progressively increased from IgM MGUS and smoldering WM vs. symptomatic WM (18% vs. 20% and 73%, respectively; P =.008), suggesting a multistep transformation of clonal B-cells that albeit benign (i.e.: IgM MGUS and smoldering WM), already harbor the phenotypic and molecular signatures of the malignant Waldenstrms clone.
The cellular origin and malignant transformation of Waldenström macroglobulinemia.
Specimen part, Disease stage, SubjectView Samples