The development of CRISPR-Cas systems for targeting DNA and RNA in diverse organisms has transformed biotechnology and biological research. Moreover, the CRISPR revolution has highlighted bacterial adaptive immune systems as a rich and largely unexplored frontier for discovery of new genome engineering technologies. In particular, the class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems, which use single RNA-guided DNA-targeting nucleases such as Cas9, have been widely applied for targeting DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Here, we report DNA-targeting and transcriptional control with class I CRISPR-Cas systems. Specifically, we repurpose the effector complex from type I variants of class 1 CRISPR-Cas systems, the most prevalent CRISPR loci in nature, that target DNA via a multi-component RNA-guided complex termed Cascade. We validate Cascade expression, complex formation, and nuclear localization in human cells and demonstrate programmable CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-mediated targeting of specific loci in the human genome. By tethering transactivation domains to Cascade, we modulate the expression of targeted chromosomal genes in both human cells and plants. This study expands the toolbox for engineering eukaryotic genomes and establishes Cascade as a novel CRISPR-based technology for targeted eukaryotic gene regulation. Overall design: Examination of transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression with Cascade-mediated activation of endogenous genes.