In this study, Brassica napus seeds were exposed to an artificial aging environment (40Â°C and 90% relative humidity). Using 172 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population, 13 QTLs were detected on eight chromosomes and explained ~9.05% of the total phenotypic variation. QTLs q2015AGIA-C08 and q2016AGI-C08-2 identified in the two environments were considered the same QTL. After inducing artificial aging, lower germination index, increased relative electrical conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline content, reduced soluble sugar, protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. Furthermore, seeds of extreme lines (R0 and S0) and corresponding seeds with 15 days artificial aging (R15 and S15) were used to perform transcriptome sequencing. In total, 2,843, 1,084, 429 and 1,055 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in R15 Vs R0, S15 Vs S0, R0 Vs S0 and R15 Vs S15, respectively. Integrating the QTL mapping and RNA-sequencing analysis, seven genes, such as BnaA03g37460D encoding heat shock transcription factor C1, BnaA03g40360D encoding phosphofructokinase 4 were screened as candidate genes involved in seed aging process.