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Accession IconSRP133326

Single cell RNA-seq of IL-10-producing CD4 T cells during chronic LCMV infection

Organism Icon Mus musculus
Sample Icon 1 Downloadable Sample
Technology Badge IconNextSeq 500

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During chronic viral infection, the inflammatory function of CD4 T cells becomes gradually attenuated. Concurrently, Th1 cells progressively acquire the capacity to secrete the cytokine IL-10, a potent suppressor of antiviral T cell responses. To determine the transcriptional changes that underlie this T cell adaption process, we applied a single-cell RNA-sequencing approach and assessed the heterogeneity of IL-10-expressing CD4 T cells during chronic infection. Unexpectedly, our analyses revealed an IL-10-producing population with a robust Tfh-signature. Using IL-10 and IL-21 double-reporter mice, we further demonstrate that IL-10+IL-21+co-producing Tfh cells arise predominantly during chronic but not acute LCMV infection. Importantly, depletion of IL-10+IL-21+co-producing CD4 T cells or deletion of Il10 specifically in Tfh cells resulted in impaired humoral immunity and viral control. Mechanistically, B cell-intrinsic IL-10 signaling was required for sustaining germinal center reactions. Lastly, we demonstrate that IL-27 and type I IFNs differentially regulate the formation of this protective IL-10-producing Tfh subset. Thus, our findings elucidate a critical role for Tfh-derived IL-10 in promoting humoral immunity during persistent viral infection. Overall design: One sample prepared using 10x Genomics Chromium platform
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