When germinated and grown on-board the ISS (International Space Station), plant do not exhibit abnormal structures but they do have altered growth habits and this project aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms that provide the foundation for the altered growth habits observed in orbit. APEX03-2 (Advanced Plant Experiment 03-2), also known as TAGES-ISA (Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System-Intracellular Signaling Architecture) specifically addresses the growth and molecular changes that occur in Arabidopsis thaliana plants during spaceflight by using molecular and genetic tools, and by asking fundamental questions regarding root structure, growth and cell wall remodeling may be answered. This investigation advances the fundamental understanding of the molecular biological responses to extraterrestrial environments. This understanding helps to further define the impacts of spaceflight on biological systems to better enable NASA's future space exploration goals. https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1059.html Overall design: APEX03-2 also identified as TAGES-Isa (Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System—Intracellular Signaling Architecture) was launched on SpaceX mission CRS-5 on 10 January 2015. Dry, sterilized Arabidopsis seeds were planted aseptically on the surface of 10 cm2 solid media plates and remained dormant until removed from cold stowage and exposed to light at the initiation of the experiment on the ISS (International Space Station). The plates were grown in the Vegetable Production System (VPS/Veggie) hardware on the Columbus Module of the ISS with overhead LED lighting of the VPS. After 11 days after sowing (DAS) seedlings were harvested by an astronaut into KFT (Kennedy Fixation Tube) containing RNAlater solutions. Upon return to Earth, the harvested material was used to compare the transcriptomes and methylomes of the WS genotype between spaceflight and ground control samples.