Background: In order to become functionally competent but harmless mediators of the immune system, T cells undergo a strict educational program in the thymus, where they learn to discriminate between self and non-self. This educational program is, to a large extent, mediated by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) that have a unique capacity to express, and subsequently present a large fraction of body antigens. While the scope of promiscuously expressed genes by mTECs is well established, relatively little is known about the expression of variants that are generated by co- and post-transcriptional processes. Results: Our study reveals that in comparison to other cell types, mTECs display significantly higher levels of alternative splicing, as well as A-to-I and C-to-U RNA editing, which thereby further expand the diversity of their self-antigen repertoire. Interestingly, Aire, the key mediator of mTECs promiscuous gene expression, plays a limited role in the regulation of these transcriptional processes. Conclusions: Our results highlight RNA processing as another layer by which the immune system assures a comprehensive self-representation in the thymus which is required for the establishment of self-tolerance and prevention of autoimmunity. Identification of the number of genes expressed in Aire-KO MEChi Overall design: ~100ng of total RNA was isolated by Trizol extraction from MHC-II high mTECs from a pool of 3 Aire-KO mice. Poly-A-selected transcriptome libraries were generated using the non-directionnal TruSeq V3 RNA Sample Prep Kit (without additional pre-amplification) following the manufacturer''s protocols. Enrichment of DNA fragment with adapter molecules on both ends was done using 15 cycles of PCR amplification using the Illumina PCR mix and primer cocktail. Paired-end (2 × 100 bp) sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq2000 machine.