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Accession IconSRP063659

Accelerated cartilage differentiation distinguishes the lower from the upper vertebrate face

Organism Icon Danio rerio
Sample Icon 13 Downloadable Samples
Technology Badge IconIllumina HiSeq 2000, NextSeq 500

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Distinct shaping of the upper versus lower facial skeleton is essential for function of the vertebrate jaw and middle ear, yet the cellular mechanisms by which this occurs have remained unclear. Here, we show that Endothelin1 (Edn1) signaling accelerates mesenchymal condensation and subsequent cartilage formation in the lower face through antagonism of Jagged-Notch signaling and Prrx1 transcription factors. A genomic analysis of facial skeletal precursors in mutants and overexpression embryos reveals that Jagged-Notch signaling represses genes that are strongly induced as pharyngeal arch neural crest-derived cells begin skeletal differentiation. In wild types, initial Jagged-Notch repression dorsally ensures that barx1+ condensations and cartilage differentiation occur first in ventral-intermediate zones of the pharyngeal arches. Reduced Jagged-Notch signaling results in an expansion of pre-cartilage condensations in the upper face, with loss of barx1 partially restoring dorsal cartilage shapes in jag1b mutants. Further, by studying new mutants for zebrafish prrx1a and prrx1b, we find that Prrx1 genes function in parallel to Jagged-Notch signaling to restrict the formation of dorsal barx1+ pre-cartilage condensations. Consistently, combined losses of jag1b and prrx1a/b robustly rescue ventral barx1+ condensations and lower facial cartilage development in edn1 mutants. Together, our work suggests that Edn1 works through parallel inhibition of Jagged-Notch and Prrx1 pathways to promote an earlier and more extensive establishment of cartilage condensations in the lower face. Overall design: We performed RNAseq on FACS-sorted neural crest-derived pharyngeal arch cells (fli1a:GFP; sox10:DsRed double positive) from wild-type embryos at 3 different stages (20, 28, and 36 hours post fertilization) and embryos with altered levels of Edn1 and Notch signaling (edn1 mutants and hsp70I:Gal4; UAS:Edn1 transgenics; jag1b mutants, dibenzazepine-treated embryos, and hsp70I:Gal4; UAS:NICD transgenics. We also sequenced RNA from heat-shocked UAS:Edn1+ and hsp70I:Gal4+ transgenics and jag1b+/+ controls.
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