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Accession IconGSE90868

Immunologic Control of Zika Virus in Rhesus Monkeys

Organism Icon Macaca mulatta
Sample Icon 46 Downloadable Samples
Technology Badge Icon Rhesus Gene 1.0 ST Array (rhegene10st)

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Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for a major current outbreak in the Americas and has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly as well as Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. However, the immune responses associated with controlling ZIKV replication remain poorly characterized. Here we report a detailed analysis of innate and adaptive immune responses following ZIKV infection in 16 rhesus monkeys. A robust proinflammatory innate immune response was observed within the first few days of infection, including upregulation of type 1 interferon, which correlated directly with viral loads. Immunomodulatory pathways, including IL-10 and TGF-, were also upregulated. ZIKV-specific neutralizing antibodies emerged rapidly by day 7 and correlated inversely with viral loads, which were undetectable in peripheral blood by day 6-10. In contrast, virus replication persisted in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for at least 21-42 days in 75% (3 of 4) of the monkeys that received the lowest dose of ZIKV tested, and ZIKV-specific antibodies were essentially undetectable in CSF. These data suggest that antibodies play a critical role in the rapid control of acute viremia in the periphery but were largely excluded from the central nervous system, allowing viral persistence at this immuonoprivileged site.
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