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Accession IconGSE77539

Integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression in multiple myeloma reveals alterations related to relapse [gene expression]

Organism Icon Homo sapiens
Sample Icon 34 Downloadable Samples
Technology Badge Icon Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Array (hugene10st)

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Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable despite the introduction of novel agents and a relapsing course is observed in the majority of patients. Although the development of genomic technologies has greatly improved our understanding of MM pathogenesis, the mechanisms underlying relapse have been less investigated. In this study, an integrative analysis of DNA copy number, DNA methylation and gene expression was conducted in matched diagnosis and relapse samples from 17 MM patients. Overall, the acquisition of abnormalities at relapse was much more frequent than the lost of lesions present at diagnosis, and DNA losses were significantly more frequent at relapse than in diagnosis samples. Interestingly, copy number abnormalities involving more than 100 Mb of DNA at relapse significantly impact the gene expression of these samples, provoking a particular deregulation of IL-8 pathway. On the contrary, no relevant modifications of gene expression were observed in those samples with less than 100 Mb affected by chromosomal changes. Although different statistical approaches were used to uncover genes whose abnormal expression at relapse was regulated by DNA methylation, only two genes significantly deregulated in relapse samples (SORL1 and GLT1D1) showed a negative methylation-expression correlation. A deeper analysis demonstrated that DNA methylation was involved in regulation of SORL1 expression in MM. Finally, relevant changes in gene expression observed in relapse samples, such us downregulation of CD27 and P2RY8, were not apparently preceded by alterations in corresponding DNA. Taken together, these results showed that genomic heterogeneity, both at the DNA and RNA level, is a hallmark of MM transition from diagnosis to relapse.
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