Pericryptal myofibroblasts in the colon and rectum play an important role in regulating the normal colorectal stem cell niche and facilitating tumour progression. Myofibroblasts have previously mostly been distinguished from normal fibroblasts only by the expression of smooth muscle actin (SMA). We now identify AOC3, a surface monoamine oxidase, as a new marker of myofibroblasts by showing that it is the target protein of the myofibroblast reacting monoclonal antibody (mAb), PR2D3. The normal and tumour tissue distribution and the cell line reactivity of AOC3 match that expected for myofibroblasts. We have shown that the surface expression of AOC3 is sensitive to digestion by trypsin and collagenase and that anti-AOC3 antibodies can be used for FACS sorting of myofibroblasts obtained by non-enzymatic procedures. Whole genome microarray mRNA expression profiles of myofibroblasts and skin fibroblasts revealed four additional genes that are significantly expressed differentially between these two cell types; NKX2-3 and LRRC17 are expressed in myofibroblasts and SHOX2 and TBX5 in skin fibroblasts. Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) substantially down-regulated AOC3 expression in myofibroblasts but not in skin fibroblasts, in which it dramatically increased the expression of SMA. A knockdown of NKX2-3 in myofibroblasts caused a decrease of myofibroblast-related gene expression and an increased expression of the fibroblast associated gene, SHOX2, suggesting that NKX2-3 is a key mediator for maintaining myofibroblast characteristics. Our results show that colorectal myofibroblasts, as defined by the expression of AOC3, NKX2-3 and other markers, are a distinctly different cell type from TGF activated fibroblasts.