The pathophysiology of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) transection injury is rare in that it is characteristically followed by a high degree of spontaneous reinnervation, with reinnervation of the laryngeal adductor complex (AC) preceding that of the abducting posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle. Here, we aim to elucidate the differentially expressed myogenic factors following RLN injury that may be at least partially responsible for the spontaneous reinnervation. F344 male rats underwent RLN injury or sham surgery (n=12). One week after RLN injury, larynges were harvested following euthanasia. mRNA was extracted from PCA and AC muscles bilaterally, and microarray analysis was performed using a full rat genome array. Microarray analysis of denervated AC and PCA muscles demonstrated dramatic differences in gene expression profiles, with 205 individual probes that were differentially expressed between the denervated AC and PCA muscles, and only 14 genes with similar expression patterns. The differential expression patterns of the AC and PCA suggest different mechanisms of reinnervation. The PCA showed the gene patterns of Wallerian degeneration, while the AC expressed the gene patterns of reinnervation by adjacent axonal sprouting. This finding may reveal important therapeutic targets applicable to RLN and other peripheral nerve injuries.