Consumption of diets rich in fibers has been associated with several beneficial effects on gastrointestinal health. However, detailed studies on the molecular effects of fibers in colon are limited. In this study we investigated and compared the influence of five different fibers on the mucosal transcriptome, and luminal microbiota and SCFA concentrations in murine colon. Mice were fed diets enriched with fibers that differed in carbohydrate composition, namely inulin (IN), oligofructose (FOS), arabinoxylan (AX), guar gum (GG), resistant starch (RS) or a control diet (corn starch) for 10 days. Gene expression profiling revealed the regulation of specific, but also overlapping sets of epithelial genes by each fiber, which on a functional level were mainly linked to cell cycle and various metabolic pathways including fatty acid oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and electron transport chain. In addition, the transcription factor PPAR was predicted to be a prominent upstream regulator of these processes. Microbiota profiles were distinct per dietary fiber, but the fibers IN, FOS, AX and GG induced a common change in microbial groups. All dietary fibers, except resistant starch, increased SCFA concentrations but to a different extent. Multivariate data integration revealed strong correlations between the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and the relative abundance of bacteria belonging to the group of Clostridium cluster XIVa, that are known butyrate producers. These findings illustrate the potential of multivariate data analysis to unravel simple relationships in complex systems.