Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with generally poor clinical outcome. Currently 50% of PTCL cases are not classifiable: PTCL-not otherwise specified (NOS). Gene-expression profiles on 372 PTCL cases were analyzed and robust molecular classifiers and oncogenic pathways that reflect the pathobiology of tumor cells and their microenvironment were identified for major PTCL-entities, including 114 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), 31 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive and 48 ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 14 adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and 44 extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma that were further separated into NK-cell and gdT-cell lymphomas. Thirty-seven percent of morphologically diagnosed PTCL-NOS cases were reclassified into other specific subtypes by molecular signatures. Reexamination, immunohistochemistry, and IDH2 mutation analysis in reclassified cases supported the validity of the reclassification. Two major molecular subgroups can be identified in the remaining PTCL-NOS cases characterized by high expression of either GATA3 (33%; 40/121) or TBX21 (49%; 59/121). The GATA3 subgroup was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P=.01). High expression of cytotoxic genesignaturewithin the TBX21 subgroup also showed poor clinical outcome (P=.05). InAITL, high expression of several signatures associated with the tumor microenvironment was significantly associated with outcome. A combined prognostic score was predictive of survival in an independent cohort (P=.004).