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Accession IconGSE56453

Cyclin D:Cdk4/6 Activates Rb in Early G1 Phase by Mono-Phosphorylation

Organism Icon Mus musculus
Sample Icon 4 Downloadable Samples
Technology Badge IconIllumina MouseWG-6 v2.0 expression beadchip

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The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) regulates early G1 phase checkpoints, including the DNA damage response, as well as cell cycle exit and differentiation. The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 partially inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, resulting in release of E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains largely unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. Here we find that Rb is un-phosphorylated in G0 cells and becomes exclusively mono-phosphorylated throughout all of early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Early G1 phase mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but each shows a preferential binding pattern to specific E2F1-4 transcription factors. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by a quantum hyper-phosphorylation (>12 phosphates/Rb). Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription. In contrast, a non-phosphorylatable ?Cdk-Rb allele was non-functional for regulating a DNA damage response, but functional for driving cell cycle exit and differentiation during myogenesis. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that there is no progressive multi-phosphorylation or hypo-phosphorylation inactivation of Rb during early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Instead, cyclin D:Cdk4/6 generates functionally active, mono-phosphorylated Rb that is the only Rb isoform present in cells during early G1 phase.
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