Diurnal temperature cycling is an intrinsic characteristic of many exposed microbial ecosystems. However, its influence on yeast physiology and transcriptome has not been studied in detail. In this study, 24-h sinoidal temperature cycles, oscillating between 12 and 30C, were imposed on anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After three diurnal temperature cycles (DTC), concentrations of glucose, and extracellular metabolites, as well as CO2-production rates showed regular, reproducible circadian rhytms. DTC also led to waves of transcriptional activation and repression, which involved one sixth of the yeast genome. A substantial fraction of these DTC-responsive genes appeared to primarily respond to changes in glucose concentration. Elimination of known glucose-responsive genes revealed overrepresentation of previously identified temperature-responsive genes as well as genes involved in cell cycle and de novo purine biosynthesis. Analyses of budding index and flow cytomery demonstrated that DTC led to a partial synchronization of the cell cycle of the yeast populations in the chemostat cultures, which was lost upon release from DTC. Comparison of DTC results with data from steady-state cultures showed that DTC was sufficiently slow to allow S. cerevisiae chemostat cultures to almost completely acclimatize their transcriptome and physiology at the DTC temperature maximum, and to approach acclimation at the DTC temperature minimum.