L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa) treatment is the major pharmacotherapy for Parkinson's disease. However, almost all patients receiving levodopa eventually develop debilitating involuntary movements (dyskinesia). While it is known that striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) are involved in the genesis of this movement disorder, the molecular basis of dyskinesia is not understood. In this study, we identify distinct cell-type-specific gene expression changes that occur in sub-classes of SPNs upon induction of a parkinsonian lesion followed by chronic levodopa treatment. We identify several hundred genes whose expression is correlated with levodopa dose, many of which are under the control of AP-1 and ERK signaling. In spite of homeostatic adaptations involving several signaling modulators, AP-1-dependent gene expression remains highly dysregulated in direct pathway SPNs (dSPNs) upon chronic levodopa treatment. We also discuss which molecular pathways are most likely to dampen abnormal dopaminoceptive signaling in spiny projection neurons, hence providing potential targets for antidyskinetic treatments in Parkinson's disease.