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Accession IconGSE4883

Simvastatin has an anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages via upregulation of Kruppel-like factor-2

Organism Icon Homo sapiens
Sample Icon 9 Downloadable Samples
Technology Badge Icon Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array (hgu133plus2)

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HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, statins, have beneficial vascular effects beyond their cholesterol-lowering action. These pleiotropic effects include an anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages. Since macrophages play a central role in atherogenesis, we further characterized the effects on peripheral blood monocyte-macrophages (HPBM). Using Affymetrix gene chip analysis of simvastatin-treated HPBM, we found that simvastatin treatment lead to the downregulation of the expression of many proinflammatory genes including several chemokines (e.g. MCP-1, MIP-1 alpha and , RANTES, several other CC and CXC chemokines, IL-2 receptor-, and leukemia inhibitory factor), members of the tumor necrosis factor family (e.g. lymphotoxin beta and TRAIL), VCAM-1, ICAM-3, and tissue factor (TF). Simvastatin also modulated the expression of several transcription factors essential for the inflammatory response: simvastatin downregulated the expression of NF-kappaB relA/p65 subunit and ets-1 transcription factor, and upregulated the expression of a novel atheroprotective transcription factor, Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF-2). The effects of simvastatin on KLF-2 and its target genes were dependent on protein prenylation, since inhibitors of protein prenylation had a similar inhibitory effect in THP-1 derived macrophages. Additionally, by lentiviral overexpression KLF-2 we showed that the effect of simvastatin on MCP-1 and TF were dependent on KLF-2. We concluded that simvastatin had a strong anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages, which includes upregulation of the atheroprotective transcription factor KLF-2. These findings further explain the beneficial pleiotropic effects of statins on cardiovascular diseases.
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