Mutation in TDP-43 is causative to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 is a multifunctional ribonucleoprotein and is reproted to regulate thousands of genes in neurons, but how astrocytes contribute to TDP-43 pathogenesis is not known. This study examined how mutant TDP-43 in astrocytes kills motor neurons and causes ALS phenotypes. Primary astrocytes were isolated from transgenic rats expressing mutant TDP-43 or from control rats without mutant TDP-43 expression. Cultured astrocytes were induced to express mutant human TDP-43 and their gene expression profiles were determined by microarray assays. Microarray analysis revealed that hundreds of genes were altered in astrocytes in response to mutant TDP-43 expression.