The tumorigenicity of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is a major safety concern for their application in regenerative medicine. Here we identify the tight-junction protein Claudin-6 as a specific cell surface marker of hPSCs that can be used to selectively remove Claudin-6-positive cells from mixed cultures. We show that Claudin-6 is absent in adult tissues but highly expressed in undifferentiated cells, where it is dispensable for hPSC survival and self-renewal. We use three different strategies to remove Claudin-6-positive cells from mixed populations: an antibody against Claudin-6; a cytotoxin-conjugated antibody that selectively targets undifferentiated cells; and clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, a toxin that binds several Claudins, including Claudin-6, and efficiently kills undifferentiated cells, thus eliminating the tumorigenic potential of hPSC-containing cultures. This work provides a proof of concept for the use of Claudin-6 to eliminate residual undifferentiated hPSCs from culture, highlighting a strategy that may increase the safety of hPSC-based cell therapies.