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Accession IconGSE37025

Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist for recent-onset type 1 diabeties mellitus: a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Organism Icon Homo sapiens
Sample Icon 228 Downloadable Samples
Technology Badge Icon Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array (hgu133plus2)

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Background: Blocking the action of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) reduces beta-cell secretory dysfunction and apoptosis in vitro, diabetes incidence in animal models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), and glycaemia via improved beta-cell function in patients with T2D. We hypothesised that anakinra, a recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist, improves beta-cell function in patients with new-onset T1D. Methods: In an individually randomised, two-group parallel trial involving 14 European tertiary referral centers, 69 patients aged 18-35 with T1D, < 12 weeks of symptoms, and standard mixed meal test (MMT) stimulated C-peptide 200 pM were enrolled between January, 2009 and July, 2011 and assigned by centralised computer-generated blocked randomisation with locked computer-file concealment to treatment with 100 mg anakinra (n=35) subcutaneously once daily or placebo (n=34) for 9 months as add-on to conventional therapy. Participants and care-givers, but not data monitoring unit, were masked to group assignment. The primary end-point was change in the two-hour area-under-the-curve C-peptide response to MMT, and secondary end-points changes in insulin requirements, glycaemia, and inflammatory markers at one, three, six, and nine months. Findings: The study was prematurely terminated due to slow accrual and is closed to follow-up. No interim analysis was performed. Ten patients withdrew in the anakinra and eight in the placebo arm, leaving 25 and 26 patients to be analysed, respectively. There was no statistical difference in adverse event category reporting between arms. Interpretation: Anakinra-treatment in T1D was safe, but the trial failed to meet primary and secondary outcome measures.
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