Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits some unusual features and genes commonly mutated in cancer are rarely mutated in clear-cell RCC (ccRCC), the most common type. The most prevalent genetic alteration in ccRCC is the inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene VHL. Using whole-genome and exome sequencing we discovered BAP1 as a novel tumor suppressor in ccRCC that shows little overlap with mutations in PBRM1, another recent tumor suppressor. Whereas VHL was mutated in 81% of the patients (142/176), PBRM1 was lost in 58% and BAP1 in 15% of the patients analyzed. All these tumor suppressor genes are located in chromosome 3p, which is partially or completely lost in most ccRCC patients. However, BAP1 but not PBRM1 loss was associated with higher Fuhrman grade and, therefore, poorer outcome. Xenograft tumors (tumorgrafts) implanted orthotopically in mice exhibited similar gene expression profiling to corresponding primary tumors. Gene expression profiling of tumors and tumorgrafts displayed different signatures for BAP1- and PBRM1-deficient samples. Thus, after inactivation of VHL, the acquisition of a mutation in BAP1 or PBRM1 defines a different program that might alter the fate of the patient. Our results establish the foundation for an integrated pathological and molecular genetic classification of about 70% of ccRCC patients, paving the way for subtype-specific treatments exploiting genetic vulnerabilities.