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Accession IconGSE36323

Microarray analysis of human monocytic THP-1 cell treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or Trichostatin A and the combination of both

Organism Icon Homo sapiens
Sample Icon 18 Downloadable Samples
Technology Badge IconIllumina HumanHT-12 V4.0 expression beadchip

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The nuclear hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) regulates its target genes via activation of the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) far more specifically than the chromatin modifier trichostatin A (TsA) via its inhibitory action on histone deacetylases. We selected the thrombomodulin gene locus with its complex pattern of three 1,25(OH)2D3 target genes, five VDR binding sites and multiple histone acetylation and open chromatin regions as an example to investigate together with a number of reference genes, the primary transcriptional responses to 1,25(OH)2D3 and TsA. Transcriptome-wide, 18.4% of all expressed genes are either up- or down-regulated already after a 90 min TsA treatment; their response pattern to 1,25(OH)2D3 and TsA sorts them into at least six classes. TsA stimulates a far higher number of genes than 1,25(OH)2D3 and dominates the outcome of combined treatments. However, 200 TsA target genes can be modulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 and more than 1000 genes respond only when treated with both compounds. The genomic view on the genes suggests that the degree of acetylation at transcription start sites and VDR binding regions may determine the effect of TsA on mRNA expression and its interference with 1,25(OH)2D3. Our findings may have implications on dual therapies using chromatin modifiers and nuclear receptor ligands.
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